Chondrosarcomas is a group of rare bone cancer tumors that begin in your cartilage. Cartilage is soft connective tissue that allows movement between your bones and joints. The most common treatment is surgery to remove cancerous tissue and bone.
Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy (HIPEC)
Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) surgery is a two-step procedure that treats certain cancers in the abdomen. Cancerous tumors are surgically removed, and then heated chemotherapy drugs are applied directly inside the abdomen to eliminate the remaining cancerous cells.
Benign Soft Tissue Tumor Treatment
The vast majority of benign soft tissue tumors can be treated with a single clean surgical procedure and minimal risk to surrounding normal blood vessels, nerves, muscle or bone. This provides the patient with the greatest possible functional recovery and the least chance of local recurrence of the tumor.
Radiation therapy (also called radiotherapy) is a cancer treatment that uses high doses of radiation to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. At low doses, radiation is used in x-rays to see inside your body, as with x-rays of your teeth or broken bones.
Chemotherapy is a drug treatment that uses powerful chemicals to kill fast-growing cells in your body. Chemotherapy is most often used to treat cancer, since cancer cells grow and multiply much more quickly than most cells in the body. Many different chemotherapy drugs are available.
Oncology is the study of cancer. An oncologist is a doctor who treats cancer and provides medical care for a person diagnosed with cancer. An oncologist may also be called a cancer specialist. The field of oncology has 3 major areas based on treatments: medical oncology, radiation oncology, and surgical oncology.
Acute Leukemia Treatment
The malignancy of the white blood cells is known as leukemia. Acute leukemia is characterized by rapid and severe disease progression, as well as the typical need for prompt therapy. The subtype of acute leukemia that a patient has is determined by the white blood cells that are impacted.
The size and size of the cancer, how it looks like under a microscope, and how far it has spread all affect the treatment. The standard treatment is surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy, either before or after surgery and radiation therapy. If surgery can't be done, radiation and chemotherapy may be suggested as alternatives.
Malignant Mesothelioma Treatment
Malignant mesothelioma is a cancer of the thin tissue (mesothelium) that lines the lung, chest wall, and abdomen. The major risk factor for mesothelioma is asbestos exposure. Explore the links on this page to learn more about malignant mesothelioma treatment and clinical trials.
Ganglioglioma is a very rare type of glioma brain tumour that contains a mixture of neuronal and glial cells, and hence is part of a group of tumours classified as mixed neuronal-glial tumours. Neuronal cells are those that form the neurons in the brain, which primarily carry information.
Pancreatic Islet Cell Tumor Treatment
Pancreatic islet cell tumors are rare types of hormone-producing tumors that form in tissues of the pancreas. The cells of the pancreas cluster together in small groups, called islets, throughout the pancreas. When a tumor occurs in one of these clusters, it is called an islet cell tumor. It may be benign or cancerous.
Vulvar Cancer Treatment
Vulvar cancer is a type of cancer that occurs on the outer surface area of the female genitalia. The vulva is the area of skin that surrounds the urethra and vagina, including the clitoris and labia. Vulvar cancer commonly forms as a lump or sore on the vulva that often causes itching.
Adrenal Cancer Treatment
The removal of all of the cancerous tissue during surgery is the typical therapy for adrenal cancer. If surgery is not an option or if the cancer is unable to be removed surgically, there are other therapies that may be used.
Kaposi's Sarcoma Treatment
Surgery, including local excision or electrodesiccation and curettage. Cryosurgery. Radiation therapy. Chemotherapy using one or more anticancer drugs.
Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a rare type of cancer that forms in soft tissue — specifically skeletal muscle tissue or sometimes hollow organs such as the bladder or uterus. RMS can occur at any age, but it most often affects children.
Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment
Salivary gland cancer is a rare disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the salivary glands. Being exposed to certain types of radiation may increase the risk of salivary cancer. Signs of salivary gland cancer include a lump or trouble swallowing.
Treatment of Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors
Gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors form in the lining of the gastrointestinal tract, most often in the appendix, small intestine, or rectum. Gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors form from a certain type of neuroendocrine cell (a type of cell that is like a nerve cell and a hormone-making cell)
Dysembryoplastic Neuroepithelial Tumor Treatment
The most common DNET treatment is to remove the tumor surgically. Because it is a benign tumor, and prognosis is good even if not the entire tumor is not removed, radiation and chemotherapy are not used.
CyberKnife, also known as stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), is a non-surgical solution which destroys tumors by aiming beams of radiation at them from multiple directions while sparing healthy tissues.
Mohs Skin Cancer Surgery
Mohs surgery is a precise surgical technique used to treat skin cancer. During Mohs surgery, thin layers of cancer-containing skin are progressively removed and examined until only cancer-free tissue remains. Mohs surgery is also known as Mohs micrographic surgery.
Glioblastoma is an aggressive type of cancer that can occur in the brain or spinal cord. Glioblastoma forms from cells called astrocytes that support nerve cells. Glioblastoma can occur at any age, but tends to occur more often in older adults. It can cause worsening headaches, nausea, vomiting and seizures.
Schwannoma is a rare type of tumor that forms in the nervous system. Schwannoma grows from cells called Schwann cells. Schwann cells protect and support the nerve cells of the nervous system. Schwannoma tumors are often benign, which means they are not cancer. But, in rare cases, they can become cancer.
Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia Treatment
Waldenström macroglobulinemia is a rare blood cell cancer characterized by an excess of abnormal white blood cells in the bone marrow. These abnormal cells have characteristics of both white blood cells (lymphocytes ) called B cells and more mature cells derived from B cells known as plasma cells.
Ependymoblastoma is a highly malignant brain cancer of childhood and is usually seen in the very young child or infant. It is rare among brain cancers in general, but these brain cancers are the second most common malignancy in the childhood age group, second only to leukemia.
Myelodysplastic Syndromes Treatment
Myelodysplastic syndromes are a group of disorders caused by blood cells that are poorly formed or don't work properly. Myelodysplastic syndromes result from something amiss in the spongy material inside your bones where blood cells are made (bone marrow).
Pancoast Tumor Treatment
A Pancoast tumor is a rare form of lung cancer. This type of tumor is located at the very top (apex) of the right or left lung. As the tumor grows, it can invade surrounding nerves, muscles, lymph nodes, connective tissue, upper ribs, and upper vertebrae. This causes severe pain in the shoulder and arm.
Germ Cell Tumor (GCT) Treatment
Germ cell tumor (GCT) is a neoplasm derived from germ cells. Germ-cell tumors can be cancerous or benign. Germ cells normally occur inside the gonads (ovary and testis). GCTs that originate outside the gonads may be birth defects resulting from errors during development of the embryo.
Gestational Trophoblastic Disease (GTD) Treatment
Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is a group of rare diseases in which abnormal trophoblast cells grow inside the uterus after conception. In gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD), a tumor develops inside the uterus from tissue that forms after conception (the joining of sperm and egg).
Chemotherapy is the main way to treat angiosarcoma that has spread to other parts of the body, even though many of the drugs used in treatment are toxic.
Proton therapy, also known as proton beam therapy, is a form of radiation treatment used to destroy tumor cells. Instead of using x-rays like regular radiation treatment, it uses protons to sends beams of high energy that can target tumors more precisely than X-ray radiation.
Wilms' Tumor Treatment
Wilms tumor is a type of childhood cancer that starts in the kidneys. It is the most common type of kidney cancer in children. About 9 of 10 kidney cancers in children are Wilms tumors.
Castleman Disease Treatment
Unicentric Castleman disease can be cured by surgically removing the diseased lymph node. If the lymph node is in your chest or abdomen — which is often the case — major surgery may be required. If surgical removal isn't possible, medication may be used to shrink the lymph node.
A meningioma is a tumor that arises from the meninges — the membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord. Although not technically a brain tumor, it is included in this category because it may compress or squeeze the adjacent brain, nerves and vessels.
Nasopharyngeal Cancer Treatment
Nasopharyngeal cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the nasopharynx. Ethnic background and being exposed to the Epstein-Barr virus can affect the risk of nasopharyngeal cancer. Signs of nasopharyngeal cancer include trouble breathing, speaking, or hearing.
Treatment for Paraneoplastic Syndromes
A paraneoplastic syndrome is a syndrome (a set of signs and symptoms) that is the consequence of a tumor in the body (usually a cancerous one), specifically due to the production of chemical signaling molecules (such as hormones or cytokines) by tumor cells or by an immune response against the tumor.
A pediatric hematologist/oncologist is a physician who has special training and experience to diagnose and treat blood disorders and cancers in children, teens, and young adults.
Ovarian Cancer Treatment
Ovarian cancer is a type of cancer that begins in the ovaries. The ovaries — each about the size of an almond — produce eggs (ova) as well as the hormones estrogen and progesterone. Ovarian cancer is a growth of cells that forms in the ovaries. The cells multiply quickly and can invade and destroy healthy body tissue.
Osteoblastoma is a slow-growing tumor that dissolves normal, healthy bone and makes a new type of abnormal bone material called osteoid. This osteoid bone material builds up around normal bone. Because the osteoid bone is weaker than normal bone, the area surrounding the tumor becomes more vulnerable to fracture.
Multiple Myeloma Treatment
Multiple myeloma, also known as myeloma, is a type of bone marrow cancer. Bone marrow is the spongy tissue at the centre of some bones that produces the body's blood cells. It's called multiple myeloma as the cancer often affects several areas of the body, such as the spine, skull, pelvis and ribs.
Cancer staging is the process of determining the extent to which a cancer has developed by growing and spreading. Contemporary practice is to assign a number from I to IV to a cancer, with I being an isolated cancer and IV being a cancer that has spread to the limit of what the assessment measures
Immunotherapy is a type of cancer treatment that helps your immune system fight cancer. The immune system helps your body fight infections and other diseases. It is made up of white blood cells and organs and tissues of the lymph system. Immunotherapy is a type of biological therapy.
Molecular profiling—or “tumor genomic profiling”—is a form of testing that classifies tumors based on this genetic make-up to help diagnose and treat cancer. Using a blood test or biopsy, this testing examines the DNA of cancer cells, looking for genetic mutations that have been acquired by these cells.
Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment
The main treatments for Hodgkin lymphoma are chemotherapy alone, or chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy. Occasionally, chemotherapy may be combined with steroid medicine. Surgery isn't generally used to treat the condition, except for the biopsy used to diagnose it.
Bile Duct Cancer Treatment
Treatment of resectable distal bile duct cancer may include: Surgery to remove the cancer, which may include a Whipple procedure. Stent placement or percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage as palliative therapy, to relieve jaundice and other symptoms and improve the quality of life
A Whipple procedure — also known as a pancreaticoduodenectomy — is a complex operation to remove the head of the pancreas, the first part of the small intestine (duodenum), the gallbladder and the bile duct. The Whipple procedure is used to treat tumors and other disorders of the pancreas, intestine and bile duct.
Medulloepithelioma is a rare, primitive, fast-growing brain tumour thought to stem from cells of the embryonic medullary cavity. Tumours originating in the ciliary body of the eye are referred to as embryonal medulloepitheliomas, or diktyomas.
Osteosarcoma is a type of bone cancer that begins in the cells that form bones. Osteosarcoma is most often found in the long bones — more often the legs, but sometimes the arms — but it can start in any bone. In very rare instances, it occurs in soft tissue outside the bone.
Choroid Plexus Tumor Treatment
The first treatment for choroid plexus tumors is surgery, if possible. The goal of surgery is to obtain tissue to determine the tumor type and to remove as much tumor as possible without causing more symptoms for the person. Treatments after surgery may include radiation, chemotherapy, or clinical trials.
Cancer screening is looking for cancer before a person has any symptoms. Screening tests can help find cancer at an early stage, before symptoms appear. When abnormal tissue or cancer is found early, it may be easier to treat or cure.
Brachytherapy is a type of internal radiation therapy in which seeds, ribbons, or capsules that contain a radiation source are placed in your body, in or near the tumor. Brachytherapy is a local treatment and treats only a specific part of your body.
Oral Cancer Treatment
Mouth cancer, also known as oral cancer, is where a tumour develops in a part of the mouth. It may be on the surface of the tongue, the inside of the cheeks, the roof of the mouth (palate), the lips or gums.
Neuroblastoma is a cancer that develops from immature nerve cells found in several areas of the body. Neuroblastoma most commonly arises in and around the adrenal glands, which have similar origins to nerve cells and sit atop the kidneys.
A rare, benign (not cancer) brain tumor that usually forms near the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus. Craniopharyngiomas are slow-growing and do not spread to other parts of the brain or to other parts of the body.
Head and Neck Cancer Treatment
Head and neck cancer develops from tissues in the lip and oral cavity (mouth), larynx (throat), salivary glands, nose, sinuses or the skin of the face. The most common types of head and neck cancers occur in the lip, mouth, and larynx. Symptoms predominantly include a sore that does not heal or a change in the voice.
High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU)
High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a non-invasive therapy that uses focused ultrasound waves to thermally ablate a portion of tissue, meaning the tissue is destroyed using intense heat.
Blastoma treatments are similar to those for other types of cancer and include surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy.
Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity Cancer Treatment
Paranasal sinus and nasal cavity cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity. "Paranasal" means near the nose. The para sinuses are hollow, air-filled spaces in the bones around the nose.
Pineoblastoma is a type of cancerous (malignant) tumor that grows in a part of the brain known as the pineal gland. It occurs mainly in children. Symptoms of pineoblastoma include a buildup of fluid around the brain ( hydrocephalus ), headaches, nausea, and difficulty with eye movement.
Microcystic Adnexal Carcinoma (MAC) Treatment
MICROCYSTIC adnexal carcinoma (MAC), or sclerosing sweat duct carcinoma, is an uncommon cutaneous malignant neoplasm that is associated with significant morbidity in light of its propensity for local invasion. As implied by its names, MAC exhibits small keratinizing cysts and well-defined ducts.
Plasmacytoma is a plasma cell dyscrasia in which a plasma cell tumour grows within soft tissue or within the axial skeleton. The International Myeloma Working Group lists three types: solitary plasmacytoma of bone (SPB); extramedullary plasmacytoma (EP), and multiple plasmacytomas that are either primary or recurrent.
Ion Beam Cancer Therapy
For certain kinds of cancer, the most effective therapy does not use x-rays or gamma rays but beams of ions, the electrically charged cores of atoms, including hydrogen ions (protons) and heavier ions such as carbon and neon.
Hematology Oncology Consultation
Hematology-oncology is the overlap of these two specialist branches of medicine concerned with diagnosing, treating and studying cancers of the blood cells, bone marrow and related tissues.
Radiation therapy (also called radiotherapy) is a cancer treatment that uses high doses of radiation to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. At low doses, radiation is used in x-rays to see inside your body, as with x-rays of your teeth or broken bones.
Bladder Cancer Treatment
Bladder cancer treatment may include: Surgery, to remove the cancer cells. Chemotherapy in the bladder (intravesical chemotherapy), to treat cancers that are confined to the lining of the bladder but have a high risk of recurrence or progression to a higher stage.
Prostate Cancer Treatment
Prostate cancer is cancer that occurs in the prostate. The prostate is a small walnut-shaped gland in males that produces the seminal fluid that nourishes and transports sperm. Prostate cancer is one of the most common types of cancer.
Kidney Cancer Treatment
Kidney cancer is cancer that begins in the kidneys. Your kidneys are two bean-shaped organs, each about the size of your fist. They're located behind your abdominal organs, with one kidney on each side of your spine. In adults, renal cell carcinoma is the most common type of kidney cancer.
Lung Cancer Treatment
Lung cancer is a type of cancer that begins in the lungs. Your lungs are two spongy organs in your chest that take in oxygen when you inhale and release carbon dioxide when you exhale. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide.
Chronic Leukemia Treatment
Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia is a type of cancer that affects the white blood cells and tends to progress slowly over many years. It mostly affects people over the age of 60 and is rare in people under 40. Children are almost never affected.
Colon/Bowel Cancer Treatment
Treatment for colon cancer usually involves surgery to remove the cancer. Other treatments, such as radiation therapy and chemotherapy, might also be recommended.
Liver Cancer Treatment
Liver cancer (also known as hepatic cancer, primary hepatic cancer, or primary hepatic malignancy) is cancer that starts in the liver. Liver cancer can be primary (starts in liver) or secondary (meaning cancer which has spread from elsewhere to the liver, known as liver metastasis).
Esophageal Cancer Treatment
Esophageal cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the esophagus. Smoking, heavy alcohol use, and Barrett esophagus can increase the risk of esophageal cancer. Signs and symptoms of esophageal cancer are weight loss and painful or difficult swallowing.
Gallbladder Cancer Treatment
Gallbladder cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the gallbladder. Gallbladder cancer is a rare disease in which malignant (cancer) cells are found in the tissues of the gallbladder. The gallbladder is a pear-shaped organ that lies just under the liver in the upper abdomen.
Laryngeal Cancer Treatment
Laryngeal cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the larynx. Use of tobacco products and drinking too much alcohol can affect the risk of laryngeal cancer. Signs and symptoms of laryngeal cancer include a sore throat and ear pain.
Skin Cancer Treatment
Skin cancer — the abnormal growth of skin cells — most often develops on skin exposed to the sun. But this common form of cancer can also occur on areas of your skin not ordinarily exposed to sunlight. There are three major types of skin cancer — basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma.
Cervical Cancer Treatment
Most early-stage cervical cancers are treated with a radical hysterectomy operation, which involves removing the cervix, uterus, part of the vagina and nearby lymph nodes.
The goal for treatment of chondroblastoma is to remove the tumor and prevent damage to the end of the affected bone.
Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas Treatment
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is a type of cancer that begins in your lymphatic system, which is part of the body's germ-fighting immune system. In non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, white blood cells called lymphocytes grow abnormally and can form growths (tumors) throughout the body.
Penile Cancer Treatment
Penile cancer is a rare cancer in the UK. It happens when abnormal penile cells grow in an uncontrolled way. It can develop anywhere on the penis but is most common under the foreskin in men who haven't been circumcised or on the head of the penis (the glans).
Soft Tissue Sarcoma Treatment
Soft tissue sarcoma is a broad term for cancers that start in soft tissues (muscle, tendons, fat, lymph and blood vessels, and nerves). These cancers can develop anywhere in the body but are found mostly in the arms, legs, chest, and abdomen.
Hormone Therapy for Cancer
Hormone therapy is used to treat cancers that use hormones to grow, such as some prostate and breast cancers. Hormone therapy is a cancer treatment that slows or stops the growth of cancer that uses hormones to grow. Hormone therapy is also called hormonal therapy, hormone treatment, or endocrine therapy.Apr 29, 2015
Intraoperative Radiation Therapy (IORT)
Intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) is an intensive radiation treatment that's administered during surgery. IORT allows direct radiation to the target area while sparing normal surrounding tissue.
Cancer Marker Blood Test
Tumor marker tests use a sample of blood to look for chemicals made by cancer cells. These tests don't always help with diagnosing cancer because many healthy cells also make these chemicals. And some conditions that aren't cancer can cause high levels of tumor markers
Stomach Cancer Treatment
Stomach cancer begins when cancer cells form in the inner lining of your stomach. These cells can grow into a tumor. Also called gastric cancer, the disease usually grows slowly over many years. Stomach cancer is most often seen in people in their late 60s through 80s.
Radiosurgery Cancer Treatment
A type of external radiation therapy that uses special equipment to position the patient and precisely give a single large dose of radiation to a tumor. It is used to treat brain tumors and other brain disorders that cannot be treated by regular surgery.
Refers to cancer that has grown beyond the original (primary) tumor to nearby lymph nodes or organs and tissues.
Small Intestine Cancer Treatment
Small intestine cancer is a rare disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the small intestine. The small intestine is part of the body's digestive system, which also includes the esophagus, stomach, and large intestine.
Male Breast Cancer Treatment
Male breast cancer is a rare cancer that forms in the breast tissue of men. Though breast cancer is most commonly thought of as a disease that affects women, breast cancer does occur in men. Male breast cancer is most common in older men, though it can occur at any age.
Primary Bone Cancer Treatment
Primary bone cancer is cancer that forms in cells of the bone. Some types of primary bone cancer are osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, and chondrosarcoma. Secondary bone cancer is cancer that spreads to the bone from another part of the body (such as the prostate, breast, or lung).
Oligodendroglioma is a tumor that can occur in the brain or spinal cord. Oligodendroglioma forms from oligodendrocytes — cells in the brain and spinal cord that produce a substance that protects nerve cells. Oligodendroglioma can occur at any age, but most often affects adults.
The primary treatment for chordoma is surgical excision with wide local margins, when possible. Radiotherapy also plays a significant role in the adjuvant setting and when surgery is not possible.
Central Nervous System (CNS) Lymphoma Treatment
Treatment of newly diagnosed primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma may include the following: Whole-brain radiation therapy. Chemotherapy with or without radiation therapy. Targeted therapy alone (rituximab, nivolumab, or ibrutinib).
Vestibular rehabilitation is an exercise-based program, designed by a specialty-trained vestibular physical therapist, to improve balance and reduce problems related to dizziness.
Treatment for Cancer of Unknown Primary (CUP)
Carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) is a rare disease in which malignant (cancer) cells are found in the body but the place the cancer began is not known. Cancer can form in any tissue of the body. The primary cancer (the cancer that first formed) can spread to other parts of the body.
Retinoblastoma is an eye cancer that begins in the retina — the sensitive lining on the inside of your eye. Retinoblastoma most commonly affects young children, but can rarely occur in adults. Your retina is made up of nerve tissue that senses light as it comes through the front of your eye.
Testicular Cancer Treatment
Testicular cancer is a disease that occurs when cancerous (malignant) cells develop in the tissues of a testicle. The development of cancerous cells in both testicles can occur, but is very rare. Testicular cancer is the most common cancer in men aged 20 to 35. The disease usually is curable.
Pancreatic Cancer Treatment
Pancreatic cancer is cancer that forms in the cells of the pancreas. Pancreatic cancer begins in the tissues of your pancreas — an organ in your abdomen that lies behind the lower part of your stomach. Your pancreas releases enzymes that aid digestion and produces hormones that help manage your blood sugar.
Endometrial Cancer Treatment
Treatment for endometrial cancer is usually with surgery to remove the uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries. Another option is radiation therapy with powerful energy. Drug treatments for endometrial cancer include chemotherapy with powerful drugs and hormone therapy to block hormones that cancer cells rely on.
Anal Cancer Treatment
Chemoradiation, which is a mix of radiotherapy and chemotherapy, is the main way to treat anal cancer. Chemotherapy or radiotherapy on their own, or surgery, are also ways to treat cancer. The experts who are taking care of you will explain the treatments, as well as their benefits and risks.
Mixed Glioma Treatment
Mixed gliomas (also called oligo-astrocytomas) are made up of more than one type of glial cell. Their diagnosis as a distinct tumor type is controversial and may be resolved with genetic screening of tumor tissue. These tumors are often found in the cerebrum and are most common in adult men.
Hyperthermia is an abnormally high body temperature. Also called heat illnesses, there are several forms of hyperthermia. Heat cramps are fairly mild, whereas heat exhaustion is more severe. Heatstroke is the most serious form of hyperthermia and can be life-threatening.
Thyroid Cancer Treatment
Thyroid cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the thyroid gland. Thyroid nodules are common but usually are not cancer. There are different types of thyroid cancer. Age, gender, and being exposed to radiation can affect the risk of thyroid cancer.
Pleomorphic Xanthoastrocytoma Treatment
Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) and anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (APXA) are two types of very rare astrocytomas. They are primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors. This means they begin in the brain or spinal cord.
Medulloblastoma is the most common type of cancerous brain tumor in children. Medulloblastoma (muh-dul-o-blas-TOE-muh) is a cancerous (malignant) brain tumor that starts in the lower back part of the brain, called the cerebellum.
Breast Cancer Treatment
Surgery is usually the first type of treatment for breast cancer. The type of surgery you have will depend on the type of breast cancer you have. Surgery is usually followed by chemotherapy or radiotherapy or, in some cases, hormone or targeted therapies.
Brainstem Glioma Treatment
Brain stem glioma is a type of central nervous system (CNS; brain and spinal cord) tumor. This type of tumor begins when healthy cells in the brain stem change and grow out of control, forming a mass called a tumor. A tumor can be cancerous or benign.
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