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    Acibadem Maslak Hospital - Description

Acıbadem Maslak Hastanesi, dünyaca ünlü Acıbadem Hastanelerinin bir parçasıdır. Türkiye’nin en büyük Tıbbi Sağlık Merkezlerinden biri olan tıp merkezi, 2009 yılında hizmete girmiştir. 2018 yılında 60 bin m2’lik yeni bir bina ile toplamda 106.000m2 olarak genişletilmiştir. Hasta odaklı hastane, uluslararası JCI akreditasyonuna sahiptir. 

Acıbadem Maslak Hastanesi, 248 yatak, 20 genel ameliyathane, 2 IVF ameliyathane, 27 yoğun bakım yatağı ile yerli ve yabancı hastalara hizmet vermektedir.

 

Acıbadem Maslak Hastanesi Medikal Teknolojik Donanımları

Hastane, ileri teknoloji ile donatılmıştır. Ultra yenilikçi tıbbi cihazlarla erken teşhis ve hatasız tedavilerle hastalarına hizmet vermektedir.

  • MR Linac

MR linac, akıllı radyo terapi yöntemidir. Bu cihaz, kanser tedavisinde kullanılan klasik radyoterapiye göre daha gelişmiş bir donanıma sahiptir. Radyoterapiye ek olarak MR ‘a(Manyetik Rezonans) sahiptir. Cihaz sayesinde, hem hastalar hem de radyasyon onkologları i önemli kazanımlar elde etmektedirler.

  • Da Vinci Robotik Cerrahi Sistemi

Robotik cerrahi başta üroloji olmak üzere birçok alanda kullanılmaktadır. Bu yeni teknoloji, riskli bölgelerde yapılan müdahalelerde insan hatasını ortadan kaldırmak için kullanılmaktadır.

  • PET-CT

Onkoloji alanında tümörlerin yayılımını 3 boyutlu görüntüleyen bir cihazdır. Acıbadem Maslak Hastanesi’nde PET-CT kullanılmaktadır.

  • True Beam

Başta beyin tümörleri olmak üzere tüm vücutta riskli organların tedavisinde kullanılan radyolojik bir cihazdır.

  • Navio Diz Robotu

Portatif bir cihazdır. Kemiğin implantasyon için hazırlanma sürecinde, tüm anatomik bilgileri sağlamaktadır.

  • Robotik Ortopedi Cihazı

Protez cerrahisinde eklem yapısı, kişiye özel olduğu için tüm prosedür, hassasiyetle yönetilmeyi gerektirir. Acıbadem Maslak Hastanesi’nde bulunan robotik ortopedi cihazı ile  her hastaya özel bir prosedür uygulamak mümkündür.

  • 3 Tesla MRI

Yüksek kalite görüntüsüne sahip bir görüntüleme cihazıdır. Tüm vücudun görüntülenmesi için kullanılmaktadır.

  • Cyberknife Cihazı

Bu cihaz, kanser tedavisinde kullanılmak üzere tasarlamıştır. Kanserli dokular üzerine odaksal olarak radyasyon demetleri göndermektedir. Bu cihaz sayesinde, sağlıklı dokular radyasyonun etkisine maruz kalmazlar.

  • Gama Bıçağı

Belirli bir hedefe odaklanarak radyasyon gönderen bir cihazdır. Beyin tümörlerinin tedavisinde etkisi kanıtlanmıştır. Gamma Knife tedavisi olarak bilinen bu cihaz özellikle beyin tümörlerinin tedavisinde kullanılmaktadır.

  • Tomoterapi HDA

Aynı anda farklı açılardan radyasyon verilerek tedavi amaçlı 3 boyutlu radyoloji cihazıdır. Beyin, boyun, göz tümörlerinde etkili çözümler sunmaktadır.

  • Robotik Yardımlı Anjiyo

Kalp cerrahisinde, kalbin canlı röntgenlerini çekmek için kullanılmaktadır. Robotik teknoloji sayesinde hatasız teşhis ve tedaviler Acıbadem Maslak Hastanesi’ni önemli bir tıp merkezi haline getirmiştir.

 

Acıbadem Maslak Hastanesi'nde Hijyen ve Rehberlik Hizmeti

Acıbadem Maslak Hastanesi büyük bir temizlik ekibiyle çalışmaktadır. 7/24 tüm hastane dezenfekte edilmektedir. 

Yabancı hastalar için uluslararası rehberlik bölümü bulunmaktadır. Yurtdışından tanı ve tedavi için gelen tüm hastalara konaklama, ulaşım hizmetleri konusunda gerekli organizasyon yapılmaktadır.

 

Acıbadem Maslak Online Konsültasyon

Acıbadem Maslak Türkiye, sertifikalı uzman görüşü almak isteyen hastalar için online konsültasyon hizmeti vermektedir. Bu hizmet ile ikinci bir görüş almak isteyen hastalar uzman doktorlar ile iletişim kurabilirler.

Ayrıca, özel nedenlerden dolayı hastaneye gelemeyen hastalar için online check-up hizmeti sunulmaktadır. Hastalar, hastaneyi arayarak bu hizmeti talep edebilirler.

 

Acıbadem Maslak Hastanesi Odaları ve Diğer Hizmetleri

Acıbadem Maslak Hastane odaları, hastaların ve yakınlarının konforu için her türlü imkanı sunmaktadır. Hastanede standart ve lüks odalar bulunmaktadır. İnternet, TV, buzdolabı, çeşitli  dergi ve gazeteler, mutfak, mikrodalga bulunmaktadır.

Hastane içerisinde alışveriş alanı, ATM, park, mescit, kafe, kuaför bulunmaktadır. Ayrıca acil durumlar için helikopter hizmeti mevcuttur.

 

Neden Acıbadem Maslak Hastanesini Tercih Etmelisiniz? 

  • Uzman doktor kadrosu ile dünya çapında tanınan bir hastanedir.
  • LEED GOLD Sertifikasına sahiptir.
  • Joint Commission International (JCI) sertifikasına sahiptir.
  • Donanımlı yoğun bakım ünitesine sahiptir. Yoğun bakımda, 20 ameliyathane ve 27 yatak kapasitesi ile hizmet vermektedir.
  • Teşhis ve tedavide başarı oranlarını arttırmak için son teknoloji cihazlarla çalışmaktadır.
  • Tüm hastane personeli, her daim profesyonel bir şekilde ve özveri ile hastalara hizmet sağlamaktadır.

    Acibadem Maslak Hospital - Accreditations

  • JCI JCI
  • ISO ISO

    Acibadem Maslak Hospital Departments

Traumatology
Traumatology 1 Services

Traumatology Consultation

Traumatology is the study of wounds and injuries caused by accidents or violence to a person, and the surgical therapy and repair of the damage.
Intensive Care Medicine
Intensive Care Medicine 6 Services

Coronary care and cardiothoracic units (CCUs/CTUs)

A coronary care unit (CCU) or cardiac intensive care unit (CICU) is a hospital ward specialized in the care of patients with heart attacks, unstable angina, cardiac dysrhythmia and (in practice) various other cardiac conditions that require continuous monitoring and treatment.

Long term intensive care units (LTAC ICUs)

A long-term acute care (LTAC) facility is a specialty-care hospital designed for patients with serious medical problems that require intense, special treatment for an extended period of time—usually 20 to 30 days.

Medical intensive care units (MICUs)

A MICU is a location in the hospital where critically ill patients receive care. As a medical ICU, we care for patients with a variety of conditions, many of them life-threatening.

Neonatal intensive care units (NICUs)

NICU stands for newborn intensive care unit. This is a nursery in a hospital that provides around-the-clock care to sick or premature babies. It has health care providers who have special training and equipment to give your baby the best possible care.

Pediatric intensive care units (PICUs)

A pediatric intensive care unit (also paediatric), usually abbreviated to PICU (/ˈpɪkjuː/), is an area within a hospital specializing in the care of critically ill infants, children, teenagers, and young adults aged 0-21.

Surgical intensive care units (SICUs)

The Surgical Intensive Care Unit (SICU) is the multispecialty medical care center for critically ill patients who require surgery or are recovering from surgery.
Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Complementary and Alternative Medicine 22 Services

Acupuncture

Acupuncture involves the insertion of very thin needles through your skin at strategic points on your body. A key component of traditional Chinese medicine, acupuncture is most commonly used to treat pain. Increasingly, it is being used for overall wellness, including stress management.

Alexander Technique

The Alexander technique teaches improved posture and movement, which is believed to help reduce and prevent problems caused by unhelpful habits. During a number of lessons you're taught to be more aware of your body, how to improve poor posture and move more efficiently.

Aromatherapy

Aromatherapy is the practice of using essential oils for therapeutic benefit. Aromatherapy has been used for centuries. When inhaled, the scent molecules in essential oils travel from the olfactory nerves directly to the brain and especially impact the amygdala, the emotional center of the brain.

Ayurveda (Ayurvedic medicine)

The concepts of universal interconnectedness, the body's constitution (prakriti), and life forces (doshas) are the primary basis of ayurvedic medicine. Goals of treatment aid the person by eliminating impurities, reducing symptoms, increasing resistance to disease, reducing worry, and increasing harmony in life.

Biofeedback

Biofeedback is a technique you can use to learn to control some of your body's functions, such as your heart rate. During biofeedback, you're connected to electrical sensors that help you receive information about your body.

Chiropractic Medicine

Chiropractic is a form of alternative medicine concerned with the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of mechanical disorders of the musculoskeletal system, especially of the spine. It has esoteric origins and is based on several pseudoscientific ideas

Diet Therapy

Diet therapy is a method of eating to improve health for prescribed by a physician. Diet therapy involves the modification of an existing dietary lifestyle for good health. Some common therapeutic diets are clear liquid diet, full liquid diet, high fiber diet, renal diet, pureed diet, food allergy modification etc.

Herbalism

Herbalism refers to folk and traditional medicinal practice based on the use of plants and plant extracts. Herbalism is also known as phytotherapy. The use of herbs to treat disease is almost universal among non-industrialized societies.

Holistic Nursing

Holistic care in nursing is a philosophy that guides the care that patients' receive which emerged from the concepts of humanism and holism. It refers to the provision of care to patients that are based on a mutual understanding of their physical, psychological, emotional, and spiritual dimensions.

Homeopathy

Homeopathy, also known as homeopathic medicine, is a medical system that was developed in Germany more than 200 years ago. It's based on two unconventional theories: “Like cures like”—the notion that a disease can be cured by a substance that produces similar symptoms in healthy people.

Hypnosis

Hypnosis, also referred to as hypnotherapy or hypnotic suggestion, is a trance-like state in which you have heightened focus and concentration. Hypnosis is usually done with the help of a therapist using verbal repetition and mental images.

Massage Therapy

Massage therapists treat clients by using touch to manipulate the muscles and other soft tissues of the body. With their touch, therapists relieve pain, help heal injuries, improve circulation, relieve stress, increase relaxation, and aid in the general wellness of clients.

Meditation

Meditation is a practice in which an individual uses a technique – such as mindfulness, or focusing the mind on a particular object, thought, or activity – to train attention and awareness, and achieve a mentally clear and emotionally calm and stable state

Naturopathy

Naturopathy is a form of healthcare that combines modern treatment with traditional methods. It includes alternative, natural therapies to modern medicine. Naturopathy focuses on : the body's capacity to heal itself. preventing health problems.

Nutritional Therapy

Nutritional therapy is the promotion of health through personalised nutrition and lifestyle support. It is a whole-body approach to nutrition and lifestyle medicine that addresses the potential underlying causes of ill-health, rather than focusing on symptoms.

Osteopathic Manipulative Therapy (OMT)

Osteopathic Manipulation Treatment (OMT) Doctors of osteopathy (DOs) literally take a hands-on approach to musculoskeletal disorders. Osteopathic manipulation treatment (OMT) is used to help correct structural imbalances in your body, improve circulation and relieve pain.

Qi Gong (Internal and External Qiging)

Expert Qigong practitioners may also use their training to treat other people, a practice called "external Qigong," or, alternatively, "Qi Therapy." Internal Qigong is said to increase one's overall vitality and health by facilitating the free flow of Qi in the body.

Reflexology

Reflexology is a type of massage that involves applying different amounts of pressure to the feet, hands, and ears. It's based on a theory that these body parts are connected to certain organs and body systems. People who practice this technique are called reflexologists.

Reiki

Reiki is an energy healing technique that promotes relaxation, reduces stress and anxiety through gentle touch. Reiki practitioners use their hands to deliver energy to your body, improving the flow and balance of your energy to support healing.

Spiritual Healing

Spiritual healing can be defined as the direct interaction between one individual (the healer) and a second (sick) individual with the intention of bringing about an improvement in the illness.

Tai Chi

Tai chi is a series of gentle physical exercises and stretches. Each posture flows into the next without pause, ensuring that your body is in constant motion. Tai chi is sometimes described as meditation in motion because it promotes serenity through gentle movements — connecting the mind and body.

Yoga

Yoga is essentially a spiritual discipline based on an extremely subtle science, which focuses on bringing harmony between mind and body.
Psychology
Psychology 1 Services

Psychological Therapy

Psychotherapy (also psychological therapy or talking therapy) is the use of psychological methods, particularly when based on regular personal interaction, to help a person change behavior, increase happiness, and overcome problems.
Nuclear Medicine
Nuclear Medicine 2 Services

Nuclear Medicine Consultation

Nuclear medicine is a specialized area of radiology that uses very small amounts of radioactive materials, or radiopharmaceuticals, to examine organ function and structure. Nuclear medicine imaging is a combination of many different disciplines.

Scintigraphy

A procedure that produces pictures (scans) of structures inside the body, including areas where there are cancer cells. Scintigraphy is used to diagnose, stage, and monitor disease. A small amount of a radioactive chemical (radionuclide) is injected into a vein or swallowed.
Regenerative Medicine
Regenerative Medicine 40 Services

Stem Cell Therapy

Stem cell therapy, also known as regenerative medicine, promotes the repair response of diseased, dysfunctional or injured tissue using stem cells or their derivatives. It is the next chapter in organ transplantation and uses cells instead of donor organs, which are limited in supply.

Stem Cell Treatment for Alzheimer’s Disease

Stem cell therapy is a unique approach to treating Alzheimer's Disease. It involves the systemic introduction of Mesenchymal Stem Cells into the body via IV. When introduced in large quantities, these stem cells can find inflammation within the body and repair it.

Stem Cell Treatment for Angina

In patients with chronic angina on optimal medical therapy, stem cell therapy improves symptoms, exercise capacity, and left ventricular ejection fraction. These findings warrant confirmation using larger trials.

Stem Cell Treatment for Autoimmune Diseases

The treatment of autoimmune diseases with stem cells is recognized as a new method that scientists are working on. Stem cells have the ability to turn into the cells of damaged organs when they touch the damaged organs, and that being the case, they are used in the treatment of autoimmune diseases.

Stem Cell Treatment for Avascular Necrosis

The combination of hip decompression and injection of mesenchymal stem cells into the necrotic lesion provides satisfactory results in patients with early-stage AVN and can lead to complete resolution of the necrotic lesion in select cases.

Stem Cell Treatment for Cardiac Conditions

Goal of cardiac stem cell therapy is to transplant enough cells into the myocardium at the site of injury or infarction to maximize restoration of function.

Stem Cell Treatment for Cardiomyopathy

A new treatment using stem cells—which have the potential to grow into a variety of heart cell types—could potentially repair and regenerate damaged heart tissue. In a study published last February in The Lancet, researchers treated 17 heart attack patients with an infusion of stem cells taken from their own hearts.

Stem Cell Treatment for Celiac Disease

Stem cells are being studied as a treatment for celiac disease to heal and regenerate healthier intestinal cells that have been damaged by the immune response from gluten. They are also able to control the immune response of the body to gluten, stopping further damage to the small intestine and allowing it to heal.

Stem Cell Treatment for Chondromalacia Patellae

One study looked at the use of stem cells to treat chondromalacia patellae. They found that these three patients all showed a 50 to 70 percent improvement in pain after one month, and pain levels improved by 80 to 90 percent after three months.

Stem Cell Treatment for Chronic Back Pain

Stem cell treatment for back pain is a regenerative therapy, meaning that it actually helps the degenerated intervertebral discs to repair themselves. The MSCs used in stem cell treatment have the capacity to: Develop into the kind of cell needed to repair the disc. Self-renew once injected, so they keep working to ...

Stem Cell Treatment for Chronic Wounds

Stem cells promote healing of chronic wounds by restoring impaired signaling pathways for growth factors, ensuring delivery of important cytokines and chemokines, inducing vascularization and innervation, and modulating inflammatory processes.

Stem Cell Treatment for Congestive Heart Failure

Stem cell treatment reduced death related to cardiovascular issues by 80% among adults with high levels of inflammation and less damaged hearts (class II heart failure). There was no reduction in hospitalizations for heart failure events among adults with heart failure who received a stem cell treatment.

Stem Cell Treatment for COPD

Stem cell therapy boosts your body's natural ability to repair and replace COPD-damaged cells. Stem cells can reduce inflammation in your lungs and airways and repair some lung tissue.

Stem Cell Treatment for Coronary Artery Disease

Stem Cell Therapy for heart artery blockage can be a good choice for those seeking a safe, non-surgical alternative treatment for most cardiac diseases, including Chronic Ischemic Arteries and Coronary Heart Disease.

Stem Cell Treatment for Heart Attacks

Stem cell therapy is a treatment option for patients with advanced heart failure due to heart attack.

Stem Cell Treatment for Hip Joint

A stem cell hip treatment allows a physician to withdraw a patient's autologous stem cells from his or her bone marrow, typically from the iliac pelvic bone. The “pluripotent” stem cells are then combined with platelets and white blood cells and re-injected directly into the injured hip tissue to accelerate healing.

Stem Cell Treatment for Ischemia

Stem cell-based therapy is a promising strategy for the damaged myocardial tissue. Different kinds of stem cells have their advantages for treatment of Ischemic heart diseases. The efficacy and potency of cell therapies vary significantly from trial to trial; some clinical trials did not show benefit.

Stem Cell Treatment for Joint Pain

Stem cell therapy involves taking healthy stem cells, either your own or those from a donor, and injecting them directly into the afflicted area. The stem cells then regenerate, adapting to the specific need for which they are intended. The cells regrow healthy tissue or bone to allow your joints to heal.

Stem Cell Treatment for Knee Cartilage Tears

Stem Cell treatment of meniscus tears offers patients a minimally invasive same-day injection procedure that may help heal the injured tissue.

Stem Cell Treatment for Knee Joint

In theory, stem cell therapy uses the body's own healing mechanisms to help repair and slow the deterioration of body tissues, such as cartilage. Stem cell therapy for knees aims to: slow and repair damaged cartilage. decrease inflammation and reduce pain.

Stem Cell Treatment for Lupus Erythematosus

Stem cell therapy for Lupus. Stem cell therapy may be one of the most promising new dimensions of medicine for the treatment of Lupus, especially for people who do not respond well to more traditional forms of treatment. Physicians have been treating Lupus patients with mesenchymal stem cells for over ten years.

Stem Cell Treatment for Meniscal Tears

Stem cell therapy for meniscus tears is a newer therapeutic option, offering patients the chance to repair damaged and/or degraded meniscal tissue, thus, reducing their pain and restoring function to the knee joint without increasing their risk of additional degenerative effects.

Stem Cell Treatment for Multiple Sclerosis

While there is no cure for MS, stem cell therapy can help improve a person's symptoms and slow down the progression of the disease. Stem cell therapy is an experimental treatment that people can access through clinical trials. MS causes the body to direct an immune response to its own central nervous system.

Stem Cell Treatment for Muscle Tears

Regenerative medicine offers one of the most effective muscle tear treatments known to science: stem cell therapy. This treatment may repair your torn muscle without the need for invasive surgeries or potentially dangerous medications.

Stem Cell Treatment for Neurologic Conditions

Neural stem cells (NSCs) offer the potential to replace lost tissue after nervous system injury. Thus, stem cells can promote host neural repair in part by secreting growth factors, and their regeneration-promoting activities can be modified by gene delivery.

Stem Cell Treatment for Orthopedic Conditions

Stem cell therapy has successfully used for major orthopedic procedures in terms of bone-joint injuries (fractures-bone defects, nonunion, and spinal injuries), osteoarthritis-cartilage defects, ligament-tendon injuries, femoral head osteonecrosis and osteogenesis imperfecta.

Stem Cell Treatment for Osteoarthritis

Stem cell treatments could potentially help repair damaged joints in multiple ways, including modulating the immune response, delivering cells that can be directed to form cartilage, transplanting stem cell-generated cartilage, or stimulating a patient's own cells for regeneration.

Stem Cell Treatment for Parkinson's Disease

Stem cell therapy may be a viable treatment option for Parkinson's Disease. Mesenchymal stem cells have the ability to target and reduce inflammation which may help neurological conditions.

Stem Cell Treatment for Patellar Tendon Tear

Stem cell therapy gives the body blank cells to repair tendon tissue, and it also helps reduce inflammation and pain to speed up healing. The procedure can be completed in an office visit and is a less invasive option compared to tendon repair surgery.

Stem Cell Treatment for Plantar Fasciitis

Stem cell therapy is an effective solution to a lingering and debilitating plantar fasciitis, sprained ligament or tendon, or arthritis in your foot or ankle, especially for those who need to quickly return to sports or an active lifestyle or job.

Stem Cell Treatment for Psoriasis

Some experimental results and cases has showed that mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) can prevent or treat psoriasis. This clinical study is conducted to provide more data to evaluate the effect and safety of treatment of psoriasis by human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cell.

Stem Cell Treatment for Rheumatoid Arthritis

Stem cell therapy is a relatively new area of research that is showing promise in treating autoimmune conditions such as this. In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the immune system mistakenly attacks the tissue that lines the joints, which can cause pain, inflammation, swelling, and stiffness.

Stem Cell Treatment for Rotator Cuff Tear

A stem cell rotator cuff repair is an extremely safe and effective treatment option for patients who have experienced a rotator cuff tear. Autologous stem cells are recognized as having a natural ability to help the body with both healing and regeneration.

Stem Cell Treatment for Scleroderma

Therapeutic regimen involves transplantation of a person's own blood-forming stem cells can improve survival and quality of life for people with severe scleroderma.

Stem Cell Treatment for Shoulder Joint

Stem cell therapy is one option to treat shoulder bursitis. The bone marrow stem cells used in the treatment cant turn into joint tissues, which helps repair the damaged and pinched nerves due to bursitis. Stem cell therapy for shoulder joints can also reduce inflammation and minimize pain.

Stem Cell Treatment for Stroke

Stem cells are a promising new treatment option that has been demonstrated safe and effective in a range of peer-reviewed studies. It works by replacing damaged cells within the brain and regulating the immune system to prevent further damage to the body and brain post-stroke.

Stem Cell Treatment for Tendon Tear

Stem cell therapy gives the body blank cells to repair tendon tissue, and it also helps reduce inflammation and pain to speed up healing. The procedure can be completed in an office visit and is a less invasive option compared to tendon repair surgery.

Stem Cell Treatment for Tennis Elbow

Stem cell therapy may be just the solution for your case of tennis elbow.

Stem Cell Treatment in Orthopedics

Stems cell therapy is a cutting-edge treatment that is being used in orthopedic and sports medicine. The procedure involves using a patient's own stem cells, which have the unique property of being able to develop into many different cell types, to treat sports injuries and arthritis.

Stem Cell Treatment

Stem cells are the body's raw materials — cells from which all other cells with specialized functions are generated. Under the right conditions in the body or a laboratory, stem cells divide to form more cells called daughter cells.
Psychiatry
Psychiatry 2 Services

Psychiatry Consultation

A psychiatrist is a medical doctor who can diagnose and treat a wide range of mental illnesses. These can include depression, eating disorders, insomnia, and bipolar disorder. Psychiatrists also treat particular symptoms, such as anxiety or suicidal thoughts.

Psychotherapy

Psychotherapy is a general term for treating mental health problems by talking with a psychiatrist, psychologist or other mental health provider. During psychotherapy, you learn about your condition and your moods, feelings, thoughts and behaviors.
Internal Medicine
Internal Medicine 1 Services

Internal Medicine Consultation

Internal medicine is a medical specialty in which physicians apply scientific knowledge and clinical expertise to diagnose and treat adults with a very broad range of health concerns and diseases. Physicians who specialize in internal medicine are called internists or general internists.
Thoracic Surgery
Thoracic Surgery 14 Services

Ablation

Ablation is a procedure to treat atrial fibrillation. It uses small burns or freezes to cause some scarring on the inside of the heart to help break up the electrical signals that cause irregular heartbeats. This can help the heart maintain a normal heart rhythm. The heart has 4 chambers.

Aneurysm Repair

Open surgery and endovascular repair are the two main types of surgery to repair an aneurysm. During open surgery, a surgeon makes a large cut in your belly or chest. The surgeon then replaces the damaged part of the aorta with a graft. Endovascular repair uses a much smaller incision than open surgery.

Angioplasty & Stent Placement

The term "angioplasty" means using a balloon to stretch open a narrowed or blocked artery. However, most modern angioplasty procedures also involve inserting a short wire-mesh tube, called a stent, into the artery during the procedure. The stent is left in place permanently to allow blood to flow more freely.

Aortic Valve Replacements / TAVR

Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is a minimally invasive procedure to replace a narrowed aortic valve that fails to open properly (aortic valve stenosis). In this procedure, doctors insert a catheter into the leg or chest and guide it to the heart.

Cardiac Catheterization

Cardiac catheterization (kath-uh-tur-ih-ZAY-shun) is a procedure in which a thin, flexible tube (catheter) is guided through a blood vessel to the heart to diagnose or treat certain heart conditions, such as clogged arteries or irregular heartbeats.

Cardioversion

Cardioversion is a medical procedure that restores a normal heart rhythm in people with certain types of abnormal heartbeats (arrhythmias). Cardioversion is usually done by sending electric shocks to your heart through electrodes placed on your chest. It's also possible to do cardioversion with medications.

Carotid Surgery

Carotid endarterectomy is a surgical procedure to remove a build-up of fatty deposits (plaque), which cause narrowing of a carotid artery. The carotid arteries are the main blood vessels that supply blood to the neck, face and brain.

Heart Bypass Surgery

Coronary bypass surgery is a procedure that restores blood flow to your heart muscle by diverting the flow of blood around a section of a blocked artery in your heart. Coronary bypass surgery redirects blood around a section of a blocked or partially blocked artery in your heart.

Heart Valve Repair

Your doctor may often recommend heart valve repair when possible, as it saves the heart valve and may preserve heart function. Heart valve repair surgery may include: Patching holes in a valve. Reconnecting valve flaps (leaflets or cusps) Removing excess valve tissue so that the leaflets or cusps can close tightly.

Left Ventricular Assist Device

A left ventricular assist device (LVAD) is implanted in your chest. It helps pump blood from the lower left heart chamber (left ventricle) to the rest of your body. A control unit and battery pack are worn outside your body and are connected to the LVAD through a small opening (port) in your skin.

Pacemakers

A pacemaker is a small device that's placed (implanted) in the chest to help control the heartbeat. It's used to prevent the heart from beating too slowly. Implanting a pacemaker in the chest requires a surgical procedure. A pacemaker is also called a cardiac pacing device.

Thoracic Surgery Consultation

Thoracic surgery refers to operations on organs in the chest, including the heart, lungs and esophagus. Examples of thoracic surgery include coronary artery bypass surgery, heart transplant, lung transplant and removal of parts of the lung affected by cancer.

Thoracotomy

A thoracotomy is a surgical procedure in which a cut is made between the ribs to see and reach the lungs or other organs in the chest or thorax. Typically, a thoracotomy is performed on the right or left side of the chest. An incision on the front of the chest through the breast bone can also be used, but is rare.

Trans-myocardial Revascularization

Transmyocardial revascularization, also known as TMR or TMLR, is a surgical procedure that uses a special carbon dioxide (CO2) laser to shoot tiny pinholes or channels through the heart muscle and into the heart's lower left chamber (left ventricle).
Physical Therapy
Physical Therapy 2 Services

Physical Therapy Consultation

Physical therapy (PT) is care that aims to ease pain and help you function, move, and live better. You may need it to: Relieve pain. Improve movement or ability. Prevent or recover from a sports injury.

Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF)

Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) is a more advanced form of flexibility training. PNF involves both stretching and contracting (activation) of the muscle group being targeted in order to achieve maximum static flexibility.
Tropical Medicine
Tropical Medicine 1 Services

Tropical Medicine Consultation

Tropical medicine is a branch of medicine that deals with communicable and noncommunicable diseases in the tropics. Most of the communicable diseases are infections that are endemic to the tropics contributing to significant morbidity and mortality.
Head and Neck Surgery
Head and Neck Surgery 1 Services

Head and Neck Surgery Consultation

A head surgery consultation is usually conducted like an appointment with a primary care physician. The session will start with the doctor asking general questions about the patient's health. At this point, the patient can also ask about the specifics of the procedure that he or she will undergo.
Podiatric Medicine
Podiatric Medicine 4 Services

Corns and Calluses Treatment

Corns and calluses are thick, hardened layers of skin that develop when your skin tries to protect itself against friction and pressure. They most often develop on the feet and toes or hands and fingers. Corns and calluses can be unsightly.

Orthotics Treatment

Orthotics are different. They are prescription medical devices that you wear inside your shoes to correct biomechanical foot issues such as problems with how you walk, stand, or run. They can also help with foot pain caused by medical conditions such as diabetes, plantar fasciitis, bursitis, and arthritis.

Podiatric Medicine Consultation

Podiatric Medicine is the specialty of medical sciences that deals with the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of foot and leg disorders by medical and surgical means. The Doctor of Podiatric Medicine (DPM), or Podiatric Physician, is the medical specialist responsible for the care of the foot and leg.

Yamuna® Foot Fitness Exercise Session

Yamuna® Body Rolling is a self-care and self-conditioning technique that uses specialized therapy balls to treat specific body parts. It is able to address multiple layers of tissue, including skin, fascia, muscle, and bone, as well as work with connective tissues, internal organs, and the nervous system.
Pathology
Pathology 2 Services

Bone Marrow Aspiration

Bone marrow examination refers to the pathologic analysis of samples of bone marrow obtained by bone marrow biopsy and bone marrow aspiration. Bone marrow examination is used in the diagnosis of a number of conditions, including leukemia, multiple myeloma, lymphoma, anemia, and pancytopenia.

Fine-Needle Aspiration Biopsy (FNAB, FNA or NAB)

Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB, FNA or NAB), or fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), is a diagnostic procedure used to investigate superficial (just under the skin) lumps or masses.
Drug Rehabilitation
Drug Rehabilitation 3 Services

Alcoholism Treatment

Alcoholism is defined by alcohol dependence, which is the body's physical inability to stop drinking and the presence of alcohol cravings.

Drug Rehabilitation Package

Drug rehabilitation is the process of medical or psychotherapeutic treatment for dependency on psychoactive substances such as alcohol, prescription drugs, and street drugs such as cannabis, cocaine, heroin or amphetamines.

Smoking Cessation

To quit smoking. Smoking cessation lowers the risk of cancer and other serious health problems. Counseling, behavior therapy, medicines, and nicotine-containing products, such as nicotine patches, gum, lozenges, inhalers, and nasal sprays, may be used to help a person quit smoking.
Sleep Medicine
Sleep Medicine 8 Services

Actigraphy

Actigraphy is a type of wearable sleep test that tracks your movements1 to analyze when you are asleep and when you are awake. This device can help doctors diagnose certain sleep disorders2 and monitor the treatment progress of people who have already been diagnosed with a disorder.

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy.

Cognitive behavioral therapy is a psycho-social intervention that aims to reduce symptoms of various mental health conditions, primarily depression and anxiety disorders.

Home Sleep Apnea Test

A home sleep apnea test is a very simplified breathing monitor that tracks your breathing, oxygen levels, and breathing effort while worn. It does not fully capture what is monitored with an overnight sleep study. Overnight sleep studies give a more thorough assessment of sleep issues.

Hypoglossal Nerve Stimulation Therapy Evaluation.

Importance Hypoglossal nerve stimulation is a treatment option for patients with obstructive sleep apnea unable to tolerate continuous positive airway pressure. This study evaluates demographic factors that may be associated with greater improvements in postoperative outcomes of interest.

Non-invasive Ventilation.

Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is the delivery of oxygen (ventilation support) via a face mask and therefore eliminating the need of an endotracheal airway. NIV achieves comparative physiological benefits to conventional mechanical ventilation by reducing the work of breathing and improving gas exchange.

Overnight Oximetry Test.

This test performs an overnight recording of the patient's breathing during their sleep (overnight oximetry). The test is usually performed to see if they stop breathing for short periods during their sleep. This is called Sleep Apnoea. We may also need to assess whether they need extra oxygen overnight. The test.

Polysomnography (sleep study)

Polysomnography, also called a sleep study, is a comprehensive test used to diagnose sleep disorders. Polysomnography records your brain waves, the oxygen level in your blood, heart rate and breathing, as well as eye and leg movements during the study.

Positive Airway Pressure Therapy

Positive airway pressure (PAP) treatment uses a machine to pump air under pressure into the airway of the lungs. This helps keep the windpipe open during sleep.
Pediatrics
Pediatrics 2 Services

Pediatric Surgery Consultation

Pediatric surgery is a subspecialty of surgery involving the surgery of fetuses, infants, children, adolescents, and young adults.

Pediatrics Consultation

A branch of medicine dealing with the development, care, and diseases of infants, children, and adolescents.
Infectious Diseases
Infectious Diseases 4 Services

Hepatitis C Treatment

Hepatitis C is treated using direct-acting antiviral (DAA) tablets. DAA tablets are the safest and most effective medicines for treating hepatitis C. They're highly effective at clearing the infection in more than 90% of people. The tablets are taken for 8 to 12 weeks.

Hepatitis Consultation

Consultation with a gastroenterologist and hepatologist is recommended in the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Consultation with a psychiatrist may be helpful before and during treatment in patients at risk of depression or other psychiatric illnesses.

HIV Consultation

HIV counselling is a confidential dialogue between a client and a counsellor aimed at enabling the client to cope with stress and take personal decisions related to HIV/AIDS. The counselling process includes evaluating the personal risk of HIV transmission, and discussing how to prevent infection.

Infectious Diseases Consultation

Infectious diseases are disorders caused by organisms — such as bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites. Many organisms live in and on our bodies. They're normally harmless or even helpful. But under certain conditions, some organisms may cause disease.
Immunology
Immunology 1 Services

Immunology Consultation

Immunology is the study of the immune system and is a very important branch of the medical and biological sciences. The immune system protects us from infection through various lines of defence. If the immune system is not functioning as it should, it can result in disease, such as autoimmunity, allergy and cancer.
Neonatology
Neonatology 3 Services

Intersex Consultation

Intersex is a general term used for a variety of conditions in which a person is born with a reproductive or sexual anatomy that doesn't seem to fit the typical definitions of female or male. For example, a person might be born appearing to be female on the outside, but having mostly male-typical anatomy on the inside.

Neonatology Consultation

Neonatology is a subspecialty of pediatrics that consists of the medical care of newborn infants, especially the ill or premature newborn. It is a hospital-based specialty, and is usually practised in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs).

Tracheoplasty

A slide tracheoplasty is a surgery done to make the airway larger. An incision is made on the chest to open up the airway and the heart. Cardiopulmonary bypass may be used to allow oxygen and blood flow to continue during the procedure.
Medical Laboratory
Medical Laboratory 7 Services

Blood Test Package

This routine blood test measures the cells in the body through the blood. They test the blood for white blood cells, red blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and platelets. CBC tests can detect if you have anemia, nutritional deficiencies, an infection, cancer, and bone marrow problems.

Blood Tests

A blood test is a laboratory analysis performed on a blood sample that is usually extracted from a vein in the arm using a hypodermic needle, or via fingerprick

Genetic Testing

Genetic testing is a type of medical test that identifies changes in genes, chromosomes, or proteins. The results of a genetic test can confirm or rule out a suspected genetic condition or help determine a person's chance of developing or passing on a genetic disorder.

Laboratory Tests

Laboratory tests check a sample of your blood, urine, or body tissues. A technician or your doctor analyzes the test samples to see if your results fall within the normal range. The tests use a range because what is normal differs from person to person. Many factors affect test results.

Paternity Testing

Paternity refers to fatherhood. A DNA paternity test uses DNA, usually taken from a cheek swab, to determine whether a man is the child's biological father.

Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) Testing

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), or sexually transmitted infections (STIs), are infections that are passed from one person to another through sexual contact. The contact is usually vaginal, oral, or anal sex. But sometimes they can spread through other intimate physical contact.

Urine Tests

A urinalysis is a test of your urine. It's used to detect and manage a wide range of disorders, such as urinary tract infections, kidney disease and diabetes. A urinalysis involves checking the appearance, concentration and content of urine.
Maxillofacial Surgery
Maxillofacial Surgery 6 Services

Facial Paralysis Treatment

An inability to move the muscles of the face on one or both sides is known as facial paralysis. Facial paralysis can result from nerve damage due to congenital (present at birth) conditions, trauma or disease, such as stroke, brain tumor or Bell's palsy.

Facial Tumor Removal

Whether malignant (cancerous) or benign (noncancerous), facial tumors may require some form of plastic and reconstructive surgery. Your surgeon may use different techniques depending on the size, location, and type of tumor. Facial reconstructive surgery may be needed to rebuild bone structure or soft tissue.

Jaw Fracture Treatment

Symptoms of a broken jaw include: Pain in the face or jaw, located in front of the ear or on the affected side, that gets worse with movement. Bruising and swelling of the face, bleeding from the mouth. Difficulty chewing. Jaw stiffness, difficulty opening the mouth widely, or problem closing the mouth.

Maxillofacial Prosthetics

Maxillofacial prosthetics is a branch of dentistry that deals with congenital and acquired defects of the head and neck. Maxillofacial prosthetics integrates parts of multiple disciplines including head and neck oncology, congenital malformation, plastic surgery, speech, and other related disciplines.

Maxillofacial Surgery Consultation

Maxillofacial surgery is a special type of dentistry. It involves operations to correct diseases, injuries and defects of your face, jaw or mouth. Maxillofacial surgeons are advanced specialists who diagnose and treat problems with: Bones and tissues of your jaw and lower face (maxillofacial area).

Orthognathic Surgery

Jaw surgery, also called orthognathic surgery, is surgery that helps align your upper jaw (maxilla) and lower jaw (mandible). If your jaws don't line up, it can affect your bite and make it hard for you to eat and speak. Orthognathic (“ortho nathic”) surgery isn't a single event.
Allergology
Allergology 2 Services

Allergology Consultation

Definition and Overview. Allergy consultation, which could be an initial or a follow-up consultation, is an appointment with an allergist or immunologist. It is recommended for patients who are suffering from allergy- related symptoms and those who are at risk and require preventive treatment.

Allergy Testing

Allergy testing identifies allergens, like mold, pet dander, bee stings and peanuts, that can cause allergies. During a skin prick test, a healthcare provider introduces allergens into your skin to check for a wheal (raised mark), rash or other reactions. Blood tests can check for IgE antibodies.
Cosmetology
Cosmetology 25 Services

Blemish Removal

A blemish is any type of mark, spot, discoloration, or flaw that appears on the skin. Blemishes on the face may be unsightly and emotionally upsetting, but most are benign and not life-threatening. Some blemishes, however, can signal skin cancer

Carboxitherapy

Carboxytherapy is a treatment for cellulite, stretch marks, and dark under-eye circles. It originated in French spas in the 1930s. The treatment can be applied to the eyelids, neck, face, arms, buttocks, stomach, and legs. It uses infusions of carbon dioxide, a naturally occurring gas in the body.

Cellulite Treatment

Cellulite is the herniation of subcutaneous fat within fibrous connective tissue that manifests as skin dimpling and nodularity, often on the pelvic region (specifically the buttocks), lower limbs, and abdomen.

Chemical Peel

A chemical peel is a technique used to improve and smooth the texture of the skin. Facial skin is mostly treated, and scarring can be improved. Chemical peels are intended to remove the outermost layers of the skin. To accomplish this task, the chosen peel solution induces a controlled injury to the skin.

Cosmetology Consultation

Consultations give you an opportunity to get to know your stylist and give your stylist the chance to analyze your hair, learn about your lifestyle, beauty routines (and whether you have any), determine what is required, and how long it will take to achieve the hairstyle you desire.

Facial Mask

A face mask is a covering that you wear over your face, for example to prevent yourself from breathing bad air or from spreading germs, or to protect your face when you are in a dangerous situation.

Facial

A facial is a family of skin care treatments for the face, including steam, exfoliation (physical and chemical), extraction, creams, lotions, facial masks, peels, and massage. They are normally performed in beauty salons, but are also a common spa treatment.

Hair Straightening

Hair straightening is a hair styling technique used since the 1890s involving the flattening and straightening of hair in order to give it a smooth, streamlined, and sleek appearance.

Hair Waxing

Waxing reduces hair growth when performed at every four to five weeks. While shaving crops the hair at the skin's surface, waxing pulls it out by the root, so it grows back softer, finer, and thinner.

Hand Rejuvenation

Hand rejuvenation is a treatment that gives you visibly younger, healthier and firmer hands. If you want to diminish wrinkles, fight against the skin aging process, and improve the overall appearance of your hands, hand rejuvenation may be something to consider.

Intense Pulsed Light (IPL) Skin Treatment

Intense pulsed light (IPL) therapy, aka photofacial, is a way to improve the color and texture of your skin without surgery. It can undo some of the visible damage caused by sun exposure -- called photoaging. You may notice it mostly on your face, neck, hands, or chest.

IPL Hair Removal

IPL takes about 6 sessions to get rid of 70% of hair permanently. Also the way IPL works by killing the follicle mans that in grown hairs will no longer be a problem. There is no need to grow out your hair before treatment as it is necessary to shave (NOT WAX OR PLUCK) on the day or the day before treatment.

Laser Hair Removal

Laser hair removal is a medical procedure that uses a concentrated beam of light (laser) to remove unwanted hair. During laser hair removal, a laser emits a light that is absorbed by the pigment (melanin) in the hair.

Laser Skin Resurfacing

Laser resurfacing is a treatment to reduce facial wrinkles and skin irregularities, such as blemishes or acne scars. The technique directs short, concentrated pulsating beams of light at irregular skin, precisely removing skin layer by layer.

Laser Tattoo Removal

Lasers remove tattoos by breaking up the pigment colors with a high-intensity light beam. Black tattoo pigment absorbs all laser wavelengths, making it the easiest color to treat. Other colors can only be treated by selected lasers based upon the pigment color.

Microdermabrasion

Microdermabrasion is a cosmetic procedure that uses fine crystals and a vacuum to remove dead skin cells. It can be used on the face, neck, chest, back and hands. The aim is to reduce fine lines, minor scars, wrinkles and age spots, and make the skin smoother and younger looking.

Permanent Makeup

Permanent makeup, also called a cosmetic tattoo or micropigmentation, is done with the use of a pen containing iron oxide that tattoos the skin and to create the look of makeup. A tattoo can mimic eyeliner or lipstick, or it can darken and create the look of thicker eyebrows.

Photorejuvenation

Photorejuvenation is a skin treatment that uses lasers, intense pulsed light, or photodynamic therapy to treat skin conditions and remove effects of photoaging such as wrinkles, spots, and textures. The process induces controlled wounds to the skin. This prompts the skin to heal itself, by creating new cells.

Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) Facial Treatment

A platelet-rich plasma facial involves applying a sample of the patient's blood to the face, usually after micro-needling or microdermabrasion. Rather than applying the blood immediately, the medical professional performing the procedure first isolates protein-rich plasma and platelets from the sample to create PRP.

Pore Reduction Treatment

Pore minimizers are used to diminish the appearance of large pores on facial skin. When pores become full of dirt and bacteria, the pores can get clogged and appear larger. Many people use a pore minimizer product on the face when this happens to clean out the pores and make them look smaller.

Rejuvenation Therapy

Rejuvenation therapy is a form of medical treatment with the focus to halt, alter and even reverse the aging process. While there is currently no scientifically proven way to delay our internal aging processes themselves, there are ways to alter or delay some of the effects we experience as we age.

Skin Lightening

Skin lightening, or skin bleaching, is a cosmetic procedure that aims to lighten dark areas of skin or achieve a generally paler skin tone. It's usually used to improve the appearance of blemishes such as birthmarks and dark patches (melasma).

Skin Needling Treatment

Microneedling is a dermaroller procedure that uses small needles to prick the skin. The purpose of treatment is to generate new collagen and skin tissue for smoother, firmer, more toned skin. Microneedling is mostly used on the face and may treat various scars, wrinkles, and large pores.

Skin Tightening Treatment

Skin tightening is one of the cornerstones of skin rejuvenation and is defined as the improvement of skin laxity and crepiness of the skin. There are several energy-based devices that can produce significant skin tightening without surgery, both on and off the face.

Skin Tone Adjustment

Skin lightening treatment aims at reducing the excessive melanin content in your skin.
Endocrinology
Endocrinology 9 Services

Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Treatment

Classic CAH is treated with steroids that replace the low hormones. Infants and children usually take a form of cortisol called hydrocortisone. Adults take hydrocortisone, prednisone, or dexamethasone, which also replace cortisol.

Diabetes Consultation

A diabetes consultation is an appointment with a medical professional specializing in the diagnosis, treatment, and management of diabetes who could be your primary care doctor or a specialist called endocrinologist.

Endocrinology Consultation

An endocrinology consultation focuses on identifying the probable cause/s of the problem and recommending an ideal treatment method.

Endocrinology Testing

Endocrinology is the field of hormone-related diseases. An endocrinologist can diagnose and treat hormone problems and the complications that arise from them. Hormones regulate metabolism, respiration, growth, reproduction, sensory perception, and movement.

Hyperthyroidism Treatment

Hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) occurs when your thyroid gland produces too much of the hormone thyroxine. Hyperthyroidism can accelerate your body's metabolism, causing unintentional weight loss and a rapid or irregular heartbeat.

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) Treatment

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a hormonal disorder common among women of reproductive age. Women with PCOS may have infrequent or prolonged menstrual periods or excess male hormone (androgen) levels. The ovaries may develop numerous small collections of fluid (follicles) and fail to regularly release eggs.

Thyroid Adenoma Treatment

Thyroid adenomas are benign lesions of the thyroid gland. These lesions may be inactive or active, producing thyroid hormones. In this case, they may be referred to as toxic thyroid adenomas. Patients with thyroid adenomas are usually asymptomatic.

Thyroid Biopsy

A thyroid fine needle aspiration biopsy is a procedure that removes a small sample of tissue from your thyroid gland. Cells are removed through a small, hollow needle. The sample is sent to the lab for analysis. The thyroid gland is in the front of your neck.

Thyroid Checkup

Health care professionals use thyroid tests to check how well your thyroid is working and to find the cause of problems such as hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. The thyroid is a small, butterfly-shaped gland in the front of your neck that makes two thyroid hormones.
Pulmonology
Pulmonology 15 Services

Bronchoscopy

Bronchoscopy is a procedure that lets doctors look at your lungs and air passages. It's usually performed by a doctor who specializes in lung disorders (a pulmonologist). During bronchoscopy, a thin tube (bronchoscope) is passed through your nose or mouth, down your throat and into your lungs.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Treatment

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammatory lung disease that causes obstructed airflow from the lungs. Symptoms include breathing difficulty, cough, mucus (sputum) production and wheezing.

Cystic Fibrosis Treatment

Lung infections are treated with antibiotics which may be given intravenously, inhaled, or by mouth. Sometimes, the antibiotic azithromycin is used long term. Inhaled hypertonic saline and salbutamol may also be useful.

Lung Biopsy

A biopsy is a procedure performed to remove tissue or cells from the body for examination under a microscope. A lung biopsy is a procedure in which samples of lung tissue are removed (with a special biopsy needle or during surgery) to determine if lung disease or cancer is present.

Lung Fluid Drainage

Thoracentesis is a procedure to remove fluid or air from around the lungs. A needle is put through the chest wall into the pleural space. The pleural space is the thin gap between the pleura of the lung and of the inner chest wall.

Lung Function Test

Spirometry is a simple test used to help diagnose and monitor certain lung conditions by measuring how much air you can breathe out in one forced breath. It's carried out using a device called a spirometer, which is a small machine attached by a cable to a mouthpiece.

Lung Volume Reduction Surgery

Lung volume reduction surgery is used to improve breathing in some people with severe emphysema, a type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). During surgery, small wedges of damaged lung tissue are removed to allow the remaining tissue to function better.

Pneumonectomy

A pneumonectomy is a type of surgery to remove one of your lungs because of cancer, trauma, or some other condition. You have two lungs: a right lung and a left lung. These lungs connect to your mouth through a series of tubes.

Pulmonary Rehablitation

Pulmonary rehabilitation is the use of exercise, education, and behavioral intervention to improve how people with chronic lung disease function in daily life and to enhance their quality of life. Pulmonary rehabilitation is a program designed for people who have chronic lung disease.

Pulmonology Consultation

Listen to pronunciation. (PUL-muh-NAH-loh-jee) A branch of medicine that specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases of the lungs and other parts of the respiratory system. These diseases include asthma, emphysema, tuberculosis, and pneumonia.

Respiratory Medicine Consultation

Doctors working in respiratory medicine diagnose and treat conditions affecting the respiratory system, which includes the nose, throat, larynx, windpipe, lungs and the diaphragm.

Thoracentesis

Thoracentesis is a procedure to remove fluid or air from around the lungs. A needle is put through the chest wall into the pleural space. The pleural space is the thin gap between the pleura of the lung and of the inner chest wall.

Thoracoscopy / Pleuroscopy

Thoracoscopy (pleuroscopy) involves passage of an endoscope through the chest wall for direct visualization of the pleura. Medical thoracoscopy is most commonly used for pleural fluid drainage, parietal pleural biopsy, and pleurodesis.

Treatment for Pneumothorax

A pneumothorax is a collapsed lung. A pneumothorax occurs when air leaks into the space between your lung and chest wall. This air pushes on the outside of your lung and makes it collapse. A pneumothorax can be a complete lung collapse or a collapse of only a portion of the lung.

Tuberculosis (TB) Treatment

Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The bacteria usually attack the lungs, but TB bacteria can attack any part of the body such as the kidney, spine, and brain. Not everyone infected with TB bacteria becomes sick.
Rheumatology
Rheumatology 6 Services

Fibromyalgia Treatment

Fibromyalgia (fi·bro·my·al·gi·a) is a condition that causes pain all over the body (also referred to as widespread pain), sleep problems, fatigue, and often emotional and mental distress. People with fibromyalgia may be more sensitive to pain than people without fibromyalgia.

Lupus Erythematosus Treatment

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), is the most common type of lupus. SLE is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system attacks its own tissues, causing widespread inflammation and tissue damage in the affected organs. It can affect the joints, skin, brain, lungs, kidneys, and blood vessels.

Rheumatoid Arthritis Consultation

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects joints. It typically results in warm, swollen, and painful joints. Pain and stiffness often worsen following rest. Most commonly, the wrist and hands are involved, with the same joints typically involved on both sides of the body.

Rheumatoid Arthritis Treatment

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects joints. It typically results in warm, swollen, and painful joints. Pain and stiffness often worsen following rest. Most commonly, the wrist and hands are involved, with the same joints typically involved on both sides of the body.

Rheumatology Consultation

Rheumatologists diagnose, treat and manage a broad range of conditions, including: Inflammatory (rheumatic) disorders that affect muscles, joints and bones. Connective tissue diseases that affect supporting structures like your ligaments and tendons, and may involve the skin and other organs.

Sjogren's Syndrome Treatment

Sjogren's (SHOW-grins) syndrome is a disorder of your immune system identified by its two most common symptoms — dry eyes and a dry mouth. The condition often accompanies other immune system disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus.
Nephrology
Nephrology 4 Services

Hydronephrosis Treatment

Hydronephrosis is a condition where one or both kidneys become stretched and swollen as the result of a build-up of urine inside them. It can affect people of any age and is sometimes spotted in unborn babies during routine pregnancy ultrasound scans. This is known as antenatal hydronephrosis.

Kidney Dialysis

Dialysis is a procedure to remove waste products and excess fluid from the blood when the kidneys stop working properly. It often involves diverting blood to a machine to be cleaned.

Kidney Transplant (Living Related Donor)

A living-donor kidney transplant is when a kidney from a living donor is removed and placed into a recipient whose kidneys no longer function properly. Only one donated kidney is needed to replace two failed kidneys, which makes living-donor kidney transplant an alternative to deceased-donor kidney transplant.Jan

Nephrology Consultation

Nephrology (from Greek nephros "kidney", combined with the suffix -logy, "the study of") is a specialty of adult internal medicine and pediatric medicine that concerns the study of the kidneys, specifically normal kidney function (renal physiology) and kidney disease (renal pathophysiology), the preservation of kidney ...
Hair Restoration
Hair Restoration 7 Services

Beard Transplant

A beard transplant is just that: Hair is taken from one part of the body and transplanted to your jawline and wherever you want your beard to grow. That sounds simple enough, but it's a rather involved process. There are two main approaches a surgeon can take: Follicular unit extraction (FUE).

Eyebrow Hair Transplant

Eyebrow transplants are a procedure where a cosmetic surgeon takes a graft of hair (plug). The surgeon takes the graft with both the hair and its roots (follicle) and moves it to the eyebrow area. The hair graft is usually removed from the nape of your neck or the area around your ear.

Eyelid Hair Transplant

The procedure involves harvesting hair from the scalp and individual implantation of the hair follicles into the eyelid margin.

Hair Loss Consultation

All new hair loss patients first need to book an initial hair loss consultation. This appointment is to find out what’s wrong with your hair or scalp and what to do about it.

Hair Loss Treatment

Hair loss, also known as alopecia or baldness, refers to a loss of hair from part of the head or body. Typically at least the head is involved. The severity of hair loss can vary from a small area to the entire body. Inflammation or scarring is not usually present.

Hair Thickening

Hair thickening treatments aim to improve your overall look with the medical approach by using certain medicines.

Hair Transplant

A hair transplant is a procedure in which a plastic or dermatological surgeon moves hair to a bald area of the head. The surgeon usually moves hair from the back or side of the head to the front or top of the head. Hair transplants typically occur in a medical office under local anesthesia.
Anesthesiology
Anesthesiology 5 Services

Anesthesia

Anesthesia is the use of medicines to prevent pain during surgery and other procedures. These medicines are called anesthetics. They may be given by injection, inhalation, topical lotion, spray, eye drops, or skin patch. They cause you to have a loss of feeling or awareness.

Anesthetics Consultation

An anesthesia consultation, also called pre-surgical anesthesia assessment, is an appointment between the patient and an anesthesiologist before a medical or surgical procedure is carried out. A surgery, whether minor or major, is always accompanied by risks, such as bleeding, pain, and discomfort.

Epidural Pain Relief

An epidural is used for giving pain relief. It can be used during surgery to supplement a general anaesthetic, and it is continued after the operation for pain control. The nerves to your lower back pass through an area in your back close to your spine, called the 'epidural space'.

Pain Treatment

Pain medicines. physical therapies (such as heat or cold packs, massage, hydrotherapy and exercise) psychological therapies (such as cognitive behavioural therapy, relaxation techniques and meditation) mind and body techniques (such as acupuncture)

Sedation

Sedation is when drugs are given to help you feel more relaxed during a procedure. The drugs (sedatives) are usually given into your vein (intravenous or IV), but can sometimes be given by mouth (oral) or through a face mask.
Reproductive Medicine
Reproductive Medicine 37 Services

Anti-Sperm Antibodies Test

An antisperm antibody test looks for special proteins (antibodies) that fight against sperm in blood, vaginal fluids, or semen. The test uses a sample of sperm and adds a substance that binds only to affected sperm. Semen can cause an immune system response. The antibodies can damage or kill sperm.

Artificial Insemination

Artificial insemination is a fertility treatment method used to deliver sperm directly to the cervix or uterus in the hopes of getting pregnant. Sometimes, these sperm are washed or “prepared” to increase the likelihood a woman will get pregnant.

Assisted Hatching

Assisted hatching is an additional procedure that can be performed in patients who are undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment. Once embryos are created using IVF, the embryo is surrounded by a hard outer layer of cells called the zona pellucida. You can think of this outer layer as the “shell” of the embryo.

Blastocyst Transfer

Blastocyst transfer is a new assisted reproductive technology that has been incorporated with in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment to increase pregnancy rates while simultaneously decreasing the risk of multiple pregnancies. Researchers in Australia pioneered this technique to increase pregnancy rates, and have reported almost double the rate of pregnancy while virtually eliminating the risk of high-order multiple pregnancies, such as triplets or quadruplets.

Diagnostic Tests

Diagnostic tests are variety of procedures done by physicians to screen for, detect and monitor diseases and conditions. It is used to gather clinical information necessary for making a diagnosis.

Egg Freezing

The process of freezing one or more unfertilized eggs (eggs that have not been combined with sperm) to save them for future use. The eggs are thawed and fertilized in the laboratory to make embryos that can be placed in a woman's uterus. Egg freezing is being studied as a type of fertility preservation.

Egg Retrieval

Typically, transvaginal ultrasound aspiration is used to retrieve eggs. During this procedure, an ultrasound probe is inserted into your vagina to identify follicles, and a needle is guided through the vagina and into the follicles.

Embryo Freezing

Embryo freezing involves in vitro fertilization, a procedure in which eggs are removed from a woman's ovary and combined with sperm in the laboratory to form embryos. The embryos are frozen and can later be thawed and placed in a woman's uterus. Embryo freezing is a type of fertility preservation.

Embryo Transfer Products

Embryo transfer requires two components: 1) generating and obtaining (flushing) the embryos from the donor female, and 2) transferring each embryo into a different female (recipient), which gestates and gives birth to that fetus.

Embryo Transfer

An embryo transfer is the last part of the in vitro fertilization (IVF) process. During IVF, fertility medications are used to stimulate the ovaries into releasing healthy eggs. These eggs are then removed from a woman's ovaries and fertilized in a lab.

Embryoscope

The Embryoscope™ is an incubator that maintains the necessary physiological conditions required by a living embryo while they are in the IVF laboratory. It has an incorporated time lapse system that has a camera that continuously captures images and records them as a video of the embryonic development.

ERA Test (Endometrial Receptivity Array)

Endometrial Receptivity Array (ERA) is a genetic test performed prior to frozen embryo transfer in highly-selected patients. This test aims to identify the best time for your embryo transfer, based on genetic testing to identify the window of implantation.

Female Fertility Testing

Samples of your blood can be tested for a hormone called progesterone to check whether you're ovulating. The timing of the test is based on how regular your periods are. If you have irregular periods, you'll be offered a test to measure hormones called gonadotrophins, which stimulate the ovaries to produce eggs.

Fertility Assessment

The fertility assessment is the first step in your fertility journey. This visit is vital to determining your reproductive goals, assessing your reproductive health and developing a personalized plan. Your specialist will be with you every step of the way.

Fertility Preservation

(fer-TIH-lih-tee PREH-zer-VAY-shun) A type of procedure used to help keep a person's ability to have children. A fertility preservation procedure is done before a medical treatment that may cause infertility, such as radiation therapy or chemotherapy.

Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) Sperm Test

Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) facilitated the detection of sperm aneuploidy. Spermatozoa consist of the head with a nucleus containing the highly compacted male haploid genome, and the flagellum, which is responsible for sperm motility.

Follicle Tracking Ultrasound

Follicle tracking is a way of predicting the time of ovulation by performing a series of ultrasound scans. The number and size of your follicles are determined at each scan along with the thickness of the lining of the uterus (endometrial thickness).

Hormone Tests

Hormone tests are often done as part of regular blood work, but your doctor may order them if you're having menstrual issues, changes in sex characteristics, fatigue, loss of sex drive, or problems getting pregnant. Doctors specifically check estrogen, progesterone, FSH, testosterone/DHEA, and thyroid hormone levels.Dec 21, 2021

Hysterosalpingography (HSG)

Hysterosalpingography, or HSG, is an X-ray test to outline the internal shape of the uterus and show whether the fallopian tubes are blocked. In HSG, a thin tube is threaded through the vagina and cervix.

In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)

During in vitro fertilization, eggs are removed from mature follicles within an ovary (A). An egg is fertilized by injecting a single sperm into the egg or mixing the egg with sperm in a petri dish (B). The fertilized egg (embryo) is transferred into the uterus (C).

Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)

Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI /ˈɪksi/ IK-see) is an in vitro fertilization (IVF) procedure in which a single sperm cell is injected directly into the cytoplasm of an egg. This technique is used in order to prepare the gametes for the obtention of embryos that may be transferred to a maternal uterus.

IVF Consultation

In vitro fertilization (IVF) is a complex series of procedures used to help with fertility or prevent genetic problems and assist with the conception of a child. During IVF , mature eggs are collected (retrieved) from ovaries and fertilized by sperm in a lab.Sep 10, 2021

Magnetic-Activated Cell Sorting (MACS)

Magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS) is a method for separation of various cell populations depending on their surface antigens (CD molecules) invented by Miltenyi Biotec. The name MACS is a registered trademark of the company.

Mini IVF

Mini IVF treatment is a type of fertility treatment similar to traditional IVF. Minimal stimulation IVF differs from conventional IVF in that less fertility medication is used during treatment, resulting in fewer eggs being released.

Ovarian Drilling

Ovarian drilling, also known as multiperforation or laparoscopic ovarian diathermy, is a surgical technique of puncturing the membranes surrounding the ovary with a laser beam or a surgical needle using minimally invasive laparoscopic procedures.

Ovulation Induction

Ovulation Induction (OI) is a fertility treatment that uses medications to cause or regulate ovulation, or increase the number of eggs produced during a cycle, to increase the opportunity for pregnancy.

Postcoital Test (PCT)

Also known as the Huhner test, PCT evaluates the interaction between sperm and cervical mucus which is essential to conceive a child. The post-coital test is often recommended as a part of the assessment when a couple has problems in conceiving a baby.

Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD)

Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is generally defined as the testing of pre-implantation stage embryos or oocytes for genetic defects. It has been developed for couples whose potential offspring are at risk of severe Mendelian disorders, structural chromosome abnormalities or mitochondrial disorders.

Reception of Oocytes from Partner (ROPA)

ROPA, which stands for Reception of Oocytes from the Partner, allows same-sex couples to 'share motherhood'. This technique consists of an In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) procedure where one woman contributes with her oocytes and the other women contributes with her uterus.

Reproductive Medicine Consultation

A branch of medicine that specializes in fertility preservation, diagnosing and treating infertility, and other reproductive problems. Reproductive medicine also deals with issues related to puberty, menopause, contraception (birth control), and certain sexual problems.

Retrograde Ejaculation Treatment

Retrograde ejaculation occurs when semen enters the bladder instead of emerging through the penis during orgasm. Although you still reach sexual climax, you might ejaculate very little or no semen. This is sometimes called a dry orgasm. Retrograde ejaculation isn't harmful, but it can cause male infertility.

Semen Analysis

Semen analysis is a test of a man's sperm and semen. Also known as a sperm count or male fertility test, its results show how many sperm are released, as well as how they're shaped and how well they move. Semen is the thick fluid that comes from men's penis when they ejaculate during sexual activity.

Sperm Collection

Semen collection refers to the process of obtaining semen from human males or other animals with the use of various methods, for the purposes of artificial insemination, or medical study (usually in fertility clinics).

Sperm DNA Fragmentation Test

Sperm DNA fragmentation tests assess the quality of DNA package which carries the important genetic information of the offspring. The tests are, therefore, distinct and more significant than the conventional semen parameters.

Sperm Freezing

Sperm freezing is the process of collecting, analyzing, freezing and storing a man's sperm. The samples are later used for fertility treatments or donated to other couples or individuals, including same-sex female partners. This overall process is known as cryopreservation and is sometimes referred to as sperm banking.

Testicular Biopsy Cryopreservation

A process being developed to freeze testicular tissue from boys who have not gone through puberty, to save for future infertility treatment. Tissue that contains cells that make sperm is removed from the testicles through a small incision (cut). It is then frozen and stored.

Tubal Cannulation

Tubal cannulation is a procedure to open up tubal corneal blocks (origin of fallopian tubes near the uterus). It is done under hysteroscopic guidance (a procedure that allows the Gynaecologist to see inside the womb by means of a fine telescope called Hysteroscope, introduced through the neck of the womb).
Vascular Surgery
Vascular Surgery 20 Services

Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair

An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a bulge or swelling in the aorta, the main blood vessel that runs from the heart down through the chest and tummy. An AAA can be dangerous if it is not spotted early on. It can get bigger over time and could burst (rupture), causing life-threatening bleeding.

Angiography

Blood vessels do not show clearly on a normal X-ray, so a special dye needs to be injected into your blood first. This highlights your blood vessels, allowing your doctor to see any problems. The X-ray images created during angiography are called angiograms.

Angioplasty

Angioplasty is a procedure used to open blocked coronary arteries caused by coronary artery disease. It restores blood flow to the heart muscle without open-heart surgery. Angioplasty can be done in an emergency setting such as a heart attack.

Aortic Arch Surgery

Both open surgery and endovascular surgery can lead to serious complications. Some people also die as a result of surgery. The risk of dying within 30 days of surgery is higher in people who have open surgery than it is in people who have endovascular surgery.

Aortoiliac and Aortofemoral Bypass Graft Surgery

Aortoliac and aortofemoral bypass graft surgery is to bypass a blocked artery. In this case, the aorta, and the iliac or femoral arteries are involved. The aorta is the body's largest artery. It carries blood from the heart to the rest of the body.

Arteriovenous (AV) Fistula for Dialysis

An AV fistula is how patients are connected to a dialysis machine. A nurse starts your dialysis treatment by inserting two needles into the AV fistula. One needle removes the blood and sends it to the machine, where it is filtered. The second needle allows the blood to be safely returned to the body.

Arteriovenous Malformation (AVM) Treatment

The main treatment for AVM is surgery. Your doctor might recommend surgery if you're at a high risk of bleeding. The surgery might completely remove the AVM . This treatment is usually used when the AVM is in an area where surgeons can remove the AVM with little risk of causing significant damage to the brain tissues.

Atherectomy

An atherectomy is a procedure that utilizes a catheter with a sharp blade on the end to remove plaque from a blood vessel. The catheter is inserted into the artery through a small puncture in the artery, and it is performed under local anesthesia.

Carotid Artery Dissection Treatment

First-line treatment for cervical artery dissection usually is antiplatelet agents (such as aspirin) or anti-coagulation to prevent the formation of blood clots. Antiplatelet drugs such as aspirin or clopidogrel may used alone or in combination.

Carotid Endarterectomy

Carotid endarterectomy is a surgical procedure used to reduce the risk of stroke from carotid artery stenosis. In endarterectomy, the surgeon opens the artery and removes the plaque.

Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) Treatment

After DVT is diagnosed, the main treatment is tablets of an anticoagulant medicine, such as warfarin and rivaroxaban. You will probably take the tablets for at least 3 months. If anticoagulant medicines are not suitable, you may have a filter put into a large vein – the vena cava – in your tummy.

Femoral Artery Bypass Surgery

Femoral popliteal bypass surgery is used to treat blocked femoral artery. The femoral artery is the largest artery in the thigh. It supplies oxygen-rich blood to the leg. Blockage is due to plaque buildup or atherosclerosis.

Femoro-popliteal and Femoro-tibial Bypass Graft Surgery

Femoral popliteal bypass surgery is used to treat blocked femoral artery. The femoral artery is the largest artery in the thigh. It supplies oxygen-rich blood to the leg. Blockage is due to plaque buildup or atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis in the leg arteries causes peripheral vascular disease.

Inferior Vena Cava (IVC) Filter Implantation

An inferior vena cava (IVC) filter is a small device that can stop blood clots from going up into the lungs. The inferior vena cava is a large vein in the middle of your body. The device is put in during a short surgery.

Intravenous Thrombolytic Therapy

Thrombolytic therapy is the use of drugs to break up or dissolve blood clots, which are the main cause of both heart attacks and stroke.

Peripheral Artery Aneurysm Repair

Open surgical repair to remove the aneurysm and replace it with a graft. Endovascular repair, a minimally invasive technique that uses catheters and guidewires to place a stent graft inside the blood vessel.

Pulmonary Embolism Treatment

Pulmonary embolism is a blockage in one of the pulmonary arteries in your lungs. In most cases, pulmonary embolism is caused by blood clots that travel to the lungs from deep veins in the legs or, rarely, from veins in other parts of the body (deep vein thrombosis).

Radiofrequency Ablation

Radiofrequency ablation, or RFA, is a minimally invasive technique that shrinks the size of tumors, nodules or other growths in the body. RFA is used to treat a range of conditions, including benign and malignant tumors, chronic venous insufficiency in the legs, as well as chronic back and neck pain.

Stent Insertion

Stents. Coronary stents are now used in nearly all angioplasty procedures. A stent is a tiny, expandable metal mesh coil. It is put into the newly opened area of the artery to help keep the artery from narrowing or closing again. Once the stent has been placed, tissue will start to coat the stent like a layer of skin.

Vascular Medicine Consultation

Vascular medicine focuses on diagnosis and treatment of circulatory problems within the blood vessels, notably the arteries, veins, and lymphatic system. Common diseases include peripheral artery disease, lymphedema, and carotid artery stenosis.
Colorectal Medicine
Colorectal Medicine 30 Services

Anal Abscess Drainage

The treatment of an abscess is surgical drainage under most circumstances. An incision is made in the skin near the anus to drain the infection. This can be done in a doctor's office with local anesthetic or in an operating room under deeper anesthesia.

Anal Cyst Removal

Incision and Drainage of Peri-Rectal Abscess: A surgical incision and drainage is the most common treatment for all types of anal abscesses and is usually successful. Abscess drainage may be performed in the office under local anesthetic or in an operating room under general anesthesia.

Anal Fissure Treatment

Anal fissures often heal within a few weeks if you take steps to keep your stool soft, such as increasing your intake of fiber and fluids. Soaking in warm water for 10 to 20 minutes several times a day, especially after bowel movements, can help relax the sphincter and promote healing.

Anal Fistula Surgery

The ligation of the intersphincteric fistula tract (LIFT) procedure is a treatment for fistulas that pass through the anal sphincter muscles, where a fistulotomy would be too risky. During the treatment, a cut is made in the skin above the fistula and the sphincter muscles are moved apart.

Anal Sphincter Repair

You'll receive an enema to clear your bowels. Your surgeon will identify the weakened areas and stitch the damaged ends together to create a complete, tightened ring of muscle. This can help restore your anus to its proper function and shape.

Anorectal Manometry

Anorectal manometry is a test that measures how well the rectum and anal sphincter are working. The anorectal manometry test is commonly given to people who have fecal incontinence, constipation and Hirschsprung's disease in children.

Anoscopy

An anoscopy is a procedure that uses a small tube called an anoscope to view the lining of your anus and rectum. A related procedure called high resolution anoscopy uses a special magnifying device called a colposcope along with an anoscope to view these areas.

Colectomy

Colectomy (col- + -ectomy) is bowel resection of the large bowel (colon). It consists of the surgical removal of any extent of the colon, usually segmental resection (partial colectomy).

Colorectal Medicine Consultation

A Colorectal Surgeon, formerly known as a proctologist, is a general surgeon who has undergone further training in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the colon, rectum and anus. Colon and rectal surgeons are experts in the surgical and non-surgical treatment of colon and rectal problems.

Crohn's Disease Treatment

Doctors treat Crohn's disease with medicines, bowel rest, and surgery. No single treatment works for everyone with Crohn's disease. The goals of treatment are to decrease the inflammation in your intestines, to prevent flare-ups of your symptoms, and to keep you in remission.

Cryptitis Surgery

Cryptitis is a term used in histopathology to describe inflammation of the intestinal crypts. The crypts are glands found in the lining of the intestines. They are sometimes called the crypts of Lieberkühn. Histopathology is the microscopic study of diseased tissues.

Diverticulitis Treatment

Mild diverticulitis is treated with antibiotics. Surgery is needed if problems develop. A high fiber diet, exercise and drinking lots of water can help prevent.

Endoscopic Full-Thickness Resection

Endoscopic full thickness resection, or EFTR, is a minimally invasive procedure to remove (resect) benign or cancerous tumors from the gastrointestinal tract using an endoscope, a flexible, tube-like instrument. “Full thickness” refers to how much of the gastrointestinal wall is removed.

Endoscopic Mucosectomy

Gastrointestinal endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is a procedure to remove precancerous, early-stage cancer or other abnormal tissues (lesions) from the digestive tract. Endoscopic mucosal resection is performed with a long, narrow tube equipped with a light, video camera and other instruments.

Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection (ESD)

Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is a minimally invasive procedure that uses a flexible, tube-like tool called an endoscope to remove precancerous and cancerous areas in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. “Submucosal” means this procedure targets tumors located under the lining of the GI tract (mucosa).

Fecal Incontinence Treatment

Fecal incontinence is the inability to control bowel movements, causing stool (feces) to leak unexpectedly from the rectum. Also called bowel incontinence, fecal incontinence ranges from an occasional leakage of stool while passing gas to a complete loss of bowel control.

Hemorrhoidectomy

A hemorrhoidectomy is surgery to remove internal or external hemorrhoids that are extensive or severe. Surgical hemorrhoidectomy is the most effective treatment for hemorrhoids, though it is associated with the greatest rate of complications. Hemorrhoid Anatomy.

Ileostomy

An ileostomy is an opening in the belly (abdominal wall) that's made during surgery. It's usually needed because a problem is causing the ileum to not work properly, or a disease is affecting that part of the colon and it needs to be removed.

Proctoscopy

A proctoscopy (rigid sigmoidoscopy) is a procedure to examine the insides of the rectum and the anus. A proctoscope is a hollow tube, usually with a tiny light at the end, that can also be used to take tissue samples for biopsies as a cancer screening tool.

Prostate Massage

Prostate massage is a way to empty fluids from your prostate ducts. This therapy might offer some health benefits, or your doctor might use it to diagnose a problem. But it's not something doctors usually recommend or use for testing or treatment.

Rectocele Surgery

The goal of rectocele repair is to strengthen the wall between the vagina and rectum. In this surgical procedure, the doctor will make an incision into the back wall of the vagina. The layers under the vaginal wall are then sutured together in such a way as to tighten the tissues and reinforce the strength of the wall.

Rectopexy

Laparoscopic rectopexy is one of the surgeries that is used to repair a rectal prolapse. In this surgery, the rectum is restored to its normal position in the pelvis, so that it no longer protrudes through the anus. Usually, stitches are used to secure the rectum, often along with mesh.

Rectoscopy

A proctoscopy (also called rigid sigmoidoscopy) is a procedure to examine the inside of the rectum and the anus. It is usually done to look for tumors, polyps, inflammation, bleeding, or hemorrhoids.

Rubber Band Ligation for Hemorrhoids

Rubber band ligation is a procedure in which the hemorrhoid is tied off at its base with rubber bands, cutting off the blood flow to the hemorrhoid. This treatment is only for internal hemorrhoids. To do this procedure, a doctor inserts a viewing instrument (anoscope) into the anus.

Small Bowel Resection

Small bowel resection is surgery to remove a part of your small bowel. It is done when part of your small bowel is blocked or diseased. The small bowel is also called the small intestine. Most digestion (breaking down and absorbing nutrients) of the food you eat takes place in the small intestine.

Sphincterotomy

Sphincterotomy, also called a lateral internal sphincterotomy, is a type of procedure that is used to cut the anal sphincter. The anal sphincter is the group of muscles connected to the rectum, at the end of the digestive tract, through which bowel movements are passed.

Surgery for Chronic Constipation

Surgery. A small number of selected patients with well documented slow-transit constipation that is resistant to medical treatment, and without evidence of functional outlet obstruction may be candidates for colon resection – surgical removal of the colon with connection of the small intestine to the remaining rectum.

Surgery for Diverticulitis

This is the most common type of surgery for diverticulitis. A surgeon cuts into the colon, removes the damaged pockets or pouches, then reattaches the remaining segments of the colon. The surgeon may reattach the colon to the rectum or create a colostomy.

Surgery for Inflammatory Bowel Disease

During surgery, your surgeon removes a damaged portion of your digestive tract and then reconnects the healthy sections. Surgery may also be used to close fistulas and drain abscesses. The benefits of surgery for Crohn's disease are usually temporary. The disease often recurs, frequently near the reconnected tissue.

Ulcerative Colitis Treatment

Ulcerative colitis is a long-term condition where the colon and rectum become inflamed. The colon is the large intestine (bowel) and the rectum is the end of the bowel where stools are stored. Small ulcers can develop on the colon's lining, and can bleed and produce pus.
Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 46 Services

Balance and Vestibular Rehabilitation Therapy

Vestibular rehabilitation is an exercise-based program, designed by a specialty-trained vestibular physical therapist, to improve balance and reduce problems related to dizziness.

Bioptron Lamp Irradiation Treatment

Bioptron therapy was shown to be an effective short term treatment for lateral epicondylitis 14. Bioptron therapy speeds healing following cosmetic facial procedures, and large wounds following major abdominal surgery.

Bobath Concept Therapy

In the United States the Bobath concept is usually referred to as 'neuro-developmental treatment' (NDT). It is based on the brain's ability to reorganise (neuroplasticity) It is a multidisciplinary approach, involving physiotherapists, occupational therapists and speech and language therapists.

Bone and Joint Screening

A bone density scan (also called a DEXA scan) which is a diagnostic test used to measure the strength of an individual's bones and the probability one has of potentially breaking a bone. A bone density scan uses a low-dose X-ray that takes about 10 minutes and is most commonly performed on the lower spine and hips.

Burn Injuries Rehabilitation

Rehabilitation from a burn injury is a lengthy process, which starts on day one and involves a continuum of care through to scar maturation and beyond. It involves a dedicated multidisciplinary team of professionals and the full participation of the patient.

Chiropractic Adjustment

Chiropractic adjustment is a procedure in which trained specialists (chiropractors) use their hands or a small instrument to apply a controlled, sudden force to a spinal joint. The goal of this procedure, also known as spinal manipulation, is to improve spinal motion and improve your body's physical function.

Chiropractic Consultation

A thorough chiropractic exam includes general tests, such as blood pressure, pulse, respiration, and reflexes. Specific orthopedic and neurological tests may also be used to assess the: Range of motion of the affected body part(s) Muscle tone. Muscle strength

Chiropractic Treatment

Chiropractic is a form of alternative medicine concerned with the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of mechanical disorders of the musculoskeletal system, especially of the spine. It has esoteric origins and is based on several pseudoscientific ideas

Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Treatment

Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a condition that causes pain and other symptoms. Scientists believe abnormal nerve functioning causes an overreaction to pain signals that the nervous system can’t shut off. Although there is no cure, treatments are aimed at decreasing symptoms, restoring limb function and maintaining your quality of life.

Cryotherapy

Cryotherapy is the use of extreme cold to freeze and remove abnormal tissue. Doctors use it to treat many skin conditions (including warts and skin tags) and some cancers, including prostate, cervical and liver cancer. This treatment is also called cryoablation.

Decompression Therapy

In medicine, Decompression refers to the removal or repositioning of any structure compressing any other structure. Common examples include decompressive craniectomy, and spinal decompression to relieve pressure on nerve roots.

Early Stimulation Therapy

By early 'infant stimulation' programs we mean. early interventional therapy for babies at risk for. developmental delay and periodic developmental. assessment, in motor development, cognitive. functioning, language or adaptive functioning.

Electrotherapy

Electrotherapy is the use of electrical energy as a medical treatment. In medicine, the term electrotherapy can apply to a variety of treatments, including the use of electrical devices such as deep brain stimulators for neurological disease.

Endurance Training

What Is Endurance Training? Endurance training describes any type of athletic training that increases your body's cardiovascular or muscular endurance. Endurance training helps develop the body's respiratory capabilities and muscular strength to sustain physical activity with lower injury risks for extended periods.

Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES)

Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is a treatment method in which low level electrical impulses are applied to nerves or muscles to improve or restore muscle function in people with spinal cord injuries.

Functional Training

Functional training is a type of exercise that looks like movements you make in your daily life. It can be helpful for athletic performance, injury prevention, and other everyday fitness tasks.

Geriatric Rehabilitation

High blood pressure might be an intergenerational problem, but issues like cardiovascular disease, ischemic heart disease, urinary incontinence, vascular dementia, multiple sclerosis, and other diseases are far more common among older adults.

Heat Therapy

Heat therapy works by improving circulation and blood flow to a particular area due to increased temperature. Increasing the temperature of the afflicted area even slightly can soothe discomfort and increase muscle flexibility. Heat therapy can relax and soothe muscles and heal damaged tissue.

Human Growth Hormone (HGH) Treatment

Human growth hormone (hGH) is a naturally occurring hormone produced by the pituitary gland. It's important for growth, cell regeneration, and cell reproduction. HGH helps to maintain, build, and repair healthy tissue in the brain and other organs.

Hydrotherapy

Hydrotherapy is one of the basic methods of treatment widely used in the system of natural medicine, which is also called as water therapy, aquatic therapy, pool therapy, and balneotherapy. Use of water in various forms and in various temperatures can produce different effects on different system of the body.

Kinergetics

Kinergetics uses applied kinesiology (muscle testing) and healing energy to help identify and release pain and stress from the body by locating and correcting emotional and metaphysical causes of disease.

Kinesiotherapy

Kinesiotherapy or Kinesitherapy or kinesiatrics (kinēsis, "movement"), literally "movement therapy", is the therapeutic treatment of disease by passive and active muscular movements (as by massage) and of exercise. It is the core element of physiotherapy/physical therapy.

Knee Brace

Knee braces are supports to be worn when you have pain in your knee. Some people use them to prevent knee injuries during sports. Braces are made from combinations of metal, foam, plastic, or elastic material and straps. They come in many sizes, colors, and designs.

Lymphatic Drainage Massage

Lymphatic drainage massage, also known as manual lymphatic drainage, relieves swelling that happens when medical treatment or illness blocks your lymphatic system. Lymphatic drainage massage involves gently manipulating specific areas of your body to help lymph move to an area with working lymph vessels.

Magnetic Therapy

Magnetic therapy is an alternative medical practice that uses static (i.e. unmoving) magnets to alleviate pain and other health concerns. So-called therapeutic magnets are typically integrated into bracelets, rings, or shoe inserts, though therapeutic magnetic mattresses and clothing are also on the market.

Manual Therapy

Manual therapy, or manipulative therapy, is a physical treatment primarily used by physical therapists, physiotherapists, occupational therapists to treat musculoskeletal pain and disability; it mostly includes kneading and manipulation of muscles, joint mobilization and joint manipulation.

Medical Gymnastics

Medical gymnastics undoubtedly has a place in the treatment of certain disorders. For posture defects, for deformities and for inflammations of the muscles, nerves and joints, such treatment tends to hasten recovery and relieve symptoms.

Motor Coordination Diagnostics

Motor coordination is the ability to coordinate muscle activation in a sequence that preserves posture. The use of muscle synergies in postural reactions and sway strategies in standing are examples of this coordination and are described in the upcoming section on neural control.

Myofascial Release (MFR)

Myofascial Release (MFR) is a holistic, therapeutic approach to manual therapy, popularized by John Barnes, PT, LMT, NCTMB. MFR offers a comprehensive approach for the evaluation and treatment of the myofascial system, the system of tissues and muscles in the body.Jul 26, 2012

Neurologic Physical Therapy

Neurological Physical Therapy encompasses specialized comprehensive evaluation and treatment of individuals with movement problems due to disease or injury of the nervous system.

Neurorehabilitation

Neurorehabilitation is a complex medical process which aims to aid recovery from a nervous system injury, and to minimize and/or compensate for any functional alterations resulting from it.

Orthopedic Rehabilitation

Orthopedic Rehabilitation, also known as Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation, is dedicated to treating injuries or illnesses involving the musculoskeletal system including bones, muscles, tendons, ligaments, joints, and other connective tissue.

Physical Rehabilitation after Amputation

The goal of rehabilitation after an amputation is to help the patient return to the highest level of function and independence possible, while improving the overall quality of life—physically, emotionally, and socially.

Physical Therapy Consultation

Physical therapy (PT) is care that aims to ease pain and help you function, move, and live better. You may need it to: Relieve pain. Improve movement or ability. Prevent or recover from a sports injury.

Physical Therapy

Physical therapy (PT) is care that aims to ease pain and help you function, move, and live better. You may need it to: Relieve pain. Improve movement or ability. Prevent or recover from a sports injury.

Rehabilitation

Rehabilitation is care that can help you get back, keep, or improve abilities that you need for daily life. These abilities may be physical, mental, and/or cognitive (thinking and learning). You may have lost them because of a disease or injury, or as a side effect from a medical treatment.

Robot-assisted HAL® Therapy

The HAL 9000 Computer is a non-human and central character in the film by Stanley Kubrick and Arthur C. Clarke - 2001: A Space Odyssey. As the brain of the spaceship Discovery, HAL is a robot that uses the mechanical, sensing, and information systems under its control.

Scanning Laser Therapy

Scanning laser therapy works in a similar physiological way to low-power contact laser therapy but it enables to treat larger areas than with contact treatment and it can be done automatically without the presence of an operator.

Speech Therapy

Speech therapy is the assessment and treatment of communication problems and speech disorders. It is performed by speech-language pathologists (SLPs), which are often referred to as speech therapists. Speech therapy techniques are used to improve communication.

Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation

A spinal cord injury — damage to any part of the spinal cord or nerves at the end of the spinal canal (cauda equina) — often causes permanent changes in strength, sensation and other body functions below the site of the injury.

Spinal Therapy

Spinal traction is a form of decompression therapy that relieves pressure on the spine. It can be performed manually or mechanically. Spinal traction is used to treat herniated discs, sciatica, degenerative disc disease, pinched nerves, and many other back conditions.

Strength Training

A system of physical conditioning in which muscles are exercised by being worked against an opposing force (as by lifting weights) to increase strength While everyone loses some muscle mass with age, a condition known as sarcopenia, it's possible to slow or even reverse that loss with regular strength training.

Stroke Rehabilitation

The goal of stroke rehabilitation is to help you relearn skills you lost when a stroke affected part of your brain. Stroke rehabilitation can help you regain independence and improve your quality of life. The severity of stroke complications and each person's ability to recover vary widely.

Targeted Laser Therapy

Laser therapy uses an intense, narrow beam of light to remove or destroy cancer and abnormal cells that can turn into cancer. Tumor cells absorb light of different wavelengths (or colors) than normal cells do. So, tumor cells can be targeted by selecting the proper wavelength of the laser.

Therapy for Temporomandibular Joint Disorders (TMJ)

Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) disorders are conditions affecting the jaw joints and surrounding muscles and ligaments. It can be caused by trauma, an improper bite, arthritis or wear and tear. Common symptoms include jaw tenderness, headaches, earaches and facial pain.

Ultrasound Therapy

Ultrasound physical therapy is a branch of ultrasound, alongside diagnostic ultrasound and pregnancy imaging. It's used to detect and treat various musculoskeletal issues you may have including pain, tissue injury, and muscle spasms.
Neurosurgery
Neurosurgery 24 Services

Acoustic Neuroma Treatment

Acoustic neuroma usually arises from the Schwann cells covering this nerve and grows slowly or not at all. Rarely, it may grow rapidly and become large enough to press against the brain and interfere with vital functions. Treatments for acoustic neuroma include regular monitoring, radiation and surgical removal.

Brachial Plexus Injury Treatment

Your doctor may recommend physical therapy to keep your joints and muscles working properly, maintain range of motion, and prevent stiff joints. Surgery to repair brachial plexus nerves should generally occur within six months after the injury. Surgeries that occur later than that have lower success rates.

Brain Aneurysm Repair

Brain aneurysms can be treated using surgery if they have burst (ruptured) or there's a risk they will. Preventative surgery is usually only recommended if there's a high risk of a rupture. This is because surgery has its own risk of potentially serious complications, such as brain damage or stroke.

Brain Tumor Surgery

To remove a brain tumor, a neurosurgeon makes an opening in the skull. This operation is called a craniotomy. Whenever possible, the surgeon attempts to remove the entire tumor. If the tumor cannot be completely removed without damaging vital brain tissue, your doctor may remove as much of the tumor as possible.

Chiari Malformation Treatment

Surgery. The main operation for Chiari malformation is called decompression surgery. Under general anaesthetic a cut is made at the back of your head and the surgeon removes a small piece of bone from the base of your skull. They may also remove a small piece of bone from the top of your spine.

Cranioplasty

Cranioplasty is a surgical operation on the repairing of cranial defects caused by previous injuries or operations, such as decompressive craniectomy. It is performed by filling the defective area with a range of materials, usually a bone piece from the patient or a synthetic material.

Craniosynostosis Treatment

Treatments. Many types of craniosynostosis require surgery. The surgical procedure is meant to relieve pressure on the brain, correct the craniosynostosis, and allow the brain to grow properly. When needed, a surgical procedure is usually performed during the first year of life.

Craniotomy

A craniotomy is the surgical removal of part of the bone from the skull to expose the brain. Specialized tools are used to remove the section of bone called the bone flap. The bone flap is temporarily removed, then replaced after the brain surgery has been done.

Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) Surgery

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a neurosurgical procedure that uses implanted electrodes and electrical stimulation to treat movement disorders associated with Parkinson's disease (PD), essential tremor, dystonia and other neurological conditions.

Duraplasty

Duraplasty is a type of repair or expansion of dura (the outer covering of the brain) when it has been cut open during surgery. It is often closed with another compatible soft tissue material taken from another part of the body.

Epidural Hematoma (EDH) Surgery

An epidural hematoma (EDH) is an extra-axial collection of blood within the potential space between the outer layer of the dura mater and the inner table of the skull. It is confined by the lateral sutures (especially the coronal sutures) where the dura inserts.

Glial Tumor Removal

The initial optimal treatment for most gliomas is maximal surgical removal. For patients with higher grade gliomas, surgery is followed by radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Fortunately, most gliomas can be surgically removed through one of several keyhole routes depending upon tumor location and size.

Hydrocephalus Treatment

Hydrocephalus is the buildup of fluid in the cavities (ventricles) deep within the brain. The excess fluid increases the size of the ventricles and puts pressure on the brain. Cerebrospinal fluid normally flows through the ventricles and bathes the brain and spinal column.

Microvascular Decompression (MVD)

Microvascular decompression (MVD) is a surgical treatment designed to treat facial pain or facial spasm that is not helped by other medical therapies. MVD is a microsurgical procedure, meaning the neurosurgeon uses an operating microscope and fine instruments to operate on the delicate blood vessels and nerves.

Neurorrhaphy

Neurorrhaphy is the surgical suturing of a divided nerve

Neurosurgery Consultation

It is the medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of of patients with injury to, or diseases/disorders of the brain, spinal cord and spinal column, and peripheral nerves within all parts of the body.

Pediatric Neurosurgery

Pediatric Neurosurgery is a subspecialty of neurosurgery; which includes surgical procedures that are related to the nervous system, brain and spinal cord; that treats children with operable neurological disorders.

Peripheral Nerve Surgery

Peripheral nerve surgery is used to improve function and minimize pain and disability in people with peripheral nerve disorders, such as acute nerve injuries, entrapment neuropathies, and nerve sheath tumors. It involves rerouting healthy nerves to take over the function of the nerves affected by your injury, disease, or condition.

Pituitary Gland Tumor Removal

This is the most common way to remove pituitary tumors. Transsphenoidal means that the surgery is done through the sphenoid sinus, a hollow space in the skull behind the nasal passages and below the brain. The back wall of the sinus covers the pituitary gland.

Skull Base Surgery

Skull base surgery is a specialized type of surgery that focuses on treating conditions at the base of the skull. This includes areas like the undersurface of the brain and important nerves and vessels that exit out of the brain to support senses such as sight, smell, and hearing.

Skull Fracture Treatment

A skull fracture is a head injury where there is a break in the skull bone. While mild breaks can cause few problems and heal over time, severe breaks can lead to complications including bleeding, brain damage, leaking of cerebrospinal fluid, infection and seizures.

Subarachnoid Hematoma (SAH) Treatment

A subarachnoid haemorrhage is most often caused by a burst blood vessel in the brain (a ruptured brain aneurysm). A brain aneurysm is a bulge in a blood vessel caused by a weakness in the blood vessel wall, usually at a point where the vessel branches off.

Subdural Hematoma (SDH) Surgery

A subdural hematoma (SDH) is a common neurosurgical disorder that often requires surgical intervention. It is a type of intracranial hemorrhage that occurs beneath the dura (essentially, a collection of blood over the surface of the brain) and may be associated with other brain injuries (see the images below).

Treatment for Penetrating Head Injury

A penetrating head injury, or open head injury, is a head injury in which the dura mater, the outer layer of the meninges, is breached. Penetrating injury can be caused by high-velocity projectiles or objects of lower velocity such as knives, or bone fragments from a skull fracture that are driven into the brain.
Ophthalmology
Ophthalmology 60 Services

Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) Treatment

Treatment depends on the type of AMD you have. Dry AMD – there's no treatment, but vision aids can help reduce the effect on your life. Read about living with AMD. Wet AMD – you may need regular eye injections and, very occasionally, a light treatment called photodynamic therapy, to stop your vision getting worse.

Amniotic Membrane Transplant

Amniotic membrane, or amnion, is the innermost layer of the placenta and consists of a thick basement membrane and an avascular stromal matrix. Amniotic membrane transplantation has been used as a graft or as a dressing in different surgical subspecialties.

Anti-VEGF Therapy

Anti-VEGF medicine blocks VEGF, slowing the growth of blood vessels in the eye. This slows or stops damage from the abnormal blood vessels and slows down vision loss. Sometimes it can even improve vision.

Astigmatism Correction

Astigmatism can be corrected with eyeglasses, contact lenses, and refractive surgery — like LASIK. It also can be corrected during cataract surgery,” Gary Heiting, OD, an optometrist and senior editor at All About Vision tells WebMD Connect to Care.

Band Keratopathy Treatment

Treatment is indicated for loss of visual acuity, intolerable eye irritation or cosmesis. Repeated application of calcium binding agent EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) and scraping of the corneal surface after removing the epithelium is usually effective to treat relatively mild cases.

Benign Essential Blepharospasm (BEB) Treatment

In most cases of BEB the treatment of choice is botulinum toxin injections which relax the muscles and stop the spasms. Other treatment options include medications (drug therapy) or surgery--either local surgery of the eye muscles or deep brain stimulation surgery.

Blowout Fracture Treatment

Most simple blowout fractures do not require surgical repair and do not cause lasting problems. Immediate treatment consists of: ice to decrease swelling. decongestants to aid in the drainage of blood and fluid accumulating in the sinuses.

Capsulotomy

Capsulotomy is a type of eye surgery in which an incision is made into the capsule of the crystalline lens of the eye. In modern cataract operations, the lens capsule is usually not removed.

Cataract Surgery

Cataract surgery is a procedure to remove the lens of your eye and, in most cases, replace it with an artificial lens. Normally, the lens of your eye is clear. A cataract causes the lens to become cloudy, which eventually affects your vision.

Chalazion Treatment

Treatment. Most chalazions require minimal medical treatment and clear up on their own in a few weeks to a month. Apply warm compresses to the eyelid for 10 to 15 minutes, 4 to 6 times a day for several days. The warm compresses may help soften the hardened oil that is blocking the ducts and allow drainage and healing.

Conjunctival Cyst Treatment

If your conjunctival cyst is affecting your vision or your quality of life, you and your doctor may decide on more aggressive treatment.

Corneal Abrasion Repair

A corneal abrasion is a scratch, scrape on the surface of your cornea. Fingernails, makeup brushes and tree branches are common culprits of corneal abrasions. Some other causes of corneal abrasion are rubbing your eye and having very dry eyes.

Corneal Cross-linking (CXL)

Corneal cross-linking with riboflavin and UV-A light is a surgical treatment for corneal ectasia such as keratoconus, PMD, and post-LASIK ectasia. It is used in an attempt to make the cornea stronger. According to a 2015 Cochrane review, there is insufficient evidence to determine if it is useful in keratoconus.

Corneal Pachymetry

Corneal pachymetry is the process of measuring the thickness of the cornea. A pachymeter is a medical device used to measure the thickness of the eye's cornea.

Dacryoadenectomy

Dacryocystectomy is a well-established oculo plastics procedure that refers to a complete surgical extirpation of the lacrimal sac. It was first described by Woolhouse in 1724 and was the standard of care before the advent of dacryocystorhinostomy for management of dacryocystitis and lacrimal fistulas.

Detached Retina Treatment

Removing and replacing the jelly inside your eye (vitrectomy) attaching a small band around your eye to push the wall of your eye and retina closer together (scleral buckling) injecting a bubble of gas into your eye to push the retina against the back of your eye (pneumatic retinopexy)

Diabetic Retinopathy Treatment

For diabetic retinopathy that is threatening or affecting your sight, the main treatments are: laser treatment – to treat the growth of new blood vessels at the back of the eye (retina) in cases of proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and to stabilise some cases of maculopathy.

Entropion/Ectropion Eyelid Repair

An entropion or ectropion repair is an operation to correct an eyelid that turns in or turns out. The operation should improve symptoms caused by entropion or ectropion.

Enucleation of the Eye

Enucleation is the surgical removal of the entire eyeball leaving behind the lining of the eyelids and muscles of the eye. Evisceration removes only the contents of the eye, leaving the white part of the eye (the sclera) and the eye muscles intact.

Exophthalmos Treatment

Exophthalmos, also known as proptosis, is the medical term for bulging or protruding eyeballs. It can affect 1 or both eyes and is most often caused by thyroid eye disease.

Eye Cancer Treatment

If the cancer starts inside the eyeball it's called intraocular cancer. The most common intraocular cancers in adults are melanoma and lymphoma. The most common eye cancer in children is retinoblastoma, which starts in the cells of the retina. Cancer can also spread to the eye from other parts of the body

Eye Examination

An eye examination is a series of tests performed to assess vision and ability to focus on and discern objects. It also includes other tests and examinations pertaining to the eyes. Eye examinations are primarily performed by an optometrist, ophthalmologist, or an orthoptist.

Eye Implant

The bionic vision system consists of a camera, attached to a pair of glasses, which transmits high-frequency radio signals to a microchip implanted in the retina. Electrodes on the implanted chip convert these signals into electrical impulses to stimulate cells in the retina that connect to the optic nerve.

Eye Muscle Repair

Eye muscle repair is surgery to correct eye muscle problems that cause strabismus (crossed eyes). Strabismus surgery corrects and aligns the muscles of the eye. The conjunctiva links the eyeball to the eye socket. The external muscles of the eye are found behind the conjunctiva.

Eye Surgery

LASIK eye surgery can help you correct refractive errors in vision such as nearsightedness (myopia), farsightedness (hyperopia), and astigmatism. The procedure uses a state-of-the-art laser to reshape your cornea so that it focuses light properly. The end result is clearer, sharper vision.

Fluorescein Angiogram

A fluorescein angiography is a medical procedure in which a fluorescent dye is injected into the bloodstream. The dye highlights the blood vessels in the back of the eye so they can be photographed. This test is often used to manage eye disorders.

Glaucoma Examination

In assessing your glaucoma, the ophthalmologist will dilate your eyes so that he or she can get a magnified, 3D view of your optic nerve. This helps to determine the status of your optic nerves and glaucoma. He or she will assess the shape, color, depth, size, and vessels of the optic nerve.

Glaucoma Treatment

Glaucoma is a group of eye conditions that damage the optic nerve, the health of which is vital for good vision. This damage is often caused by an abnormally high pressure in your eye. Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of blindness for people over the age of 60.

Implantable Contact Lens (ICL)

Implantable contact lenses (ICL) are soft, flexible implants which are similar to traditional contact lenses. They are implanted within the eye between the natural lens and the iris. It's a bit like having permanent contact lenses that you never have to take out, clean or think about.

Intracorneal Ring Segment (ICRS) Implantation

Intracorneal ring segment (ICRS) implantation represents a modern, minimally invasive, surgical option for visual improvement in patients with keratoconus. ICRS modify the corneal geometry in a manner that enhances its refractive properties and thereby, they improve visual acuity.

Intraocular Lens (IOL) Implant

An intraocular lens implant is an artificial replacement for the lens of your eye. It's part of the surgery to fix cataracts.

Intravitreal Injection

An intravitreal injection is a shot of medicine into the eye. The inside of the eye is filled with a jelly-like fluid (vitreous). During this procedure, your health care provider injects medicine into the vitreous, near the retina at the back of the eye.

Iridectomy

An iridectomy, also known as a surgical iridectomy or corectomy, is the surgical removal of part of the iris. These procedures are most frequently performed in the treatment of closed-angle glaucoma and iris melanoma.

Iridodialysis Treatment

Iridodialysis is the disinsertion of the iris from the scleral spur. It is in contrast from cyclodialysis, which is disinsertion of the ciliary body from the scleral spur. This patient suffers from monocular diplopia and glare.

Iridoplasty

Iridoplasty, also known as gonioplasty, uses low-energy laser burns to the peripheral iris in order to widen the anterior chamber angle and/or break peripheral anterior synechiae.

Iris Repair Surgery

Iris surgeries come in the form of iris repair (iridoplasty) or an iris prosthesis. Iris repair often involves the use of sutures inside the eye to reshape the iris to its original shape, re-creating a round pupil. Sometimes the surgeon may cut some of the existing iris to help improve the appearance.

Keratoprosthesi

Keratoprosthesis is a surgical procedure where a diseased cornea is replaced with an artificial cornea. Traditionally, keratoprosthesis is recommended after a person has had a failure of one or more donor corneal transplants.

Laser Coagulation

Laser photocoagulation is eye surgery using a laser to shrink or destroy abnormal structures in the retina, or to intentionally cause scarring.

Laser Eye Surgery (LASEK)

LASEK is an eye surgery that combines many of the benefits of other vision correction surgeries. Laser epithelial keratomileusis, or LASEK, combines benefits of the two most commonly performed procedures -- LASIK and PRK. LASEK eye surgery is used to treat astigmatism, nearsightedness, or farsightedness.

Laser Eye Surgery (LASIK)

Laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) can be an alternative to glasses or contact lenses. During LASIK surgery, a special type of cutting laser is used to precisely change the shape of the dome-shaped clear tissue at the front of your eye (cornea) to improve vision.

Macular Hole Surgery

A macular hole can often be repaired using an operation called a vitrectomy. The operation is successful in closing the hole in around 9 out of 10 people who've had the hole for less than 6 months. If the hole has been present for a year or longer, the success rate will be lower.

Ocular Biometry

Ocular biometry is a test that measures the dimensions of the eyeball: the axial length (distance between the anterior and posterior parts of the eye) and the depth of the anterior chamber (part between the cornea and the iris and lens).

Ophthalmology Consultation

Ophthalmology is the study of medical conditions relating to the eye. Ophthalmologists are doctors who specialize in the medical and surgical treatment of this organ.

Optic Neuropathy Treatment

Optic neuropathy is a catch-all term that refers to damage inflicted on the optic nerve in your eye. This is the nerve in the back of the eyeball that transfers visual information from your eye to the brain, allowing you to see. This condition is one that gets worse over time, when not treated.

Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT)

Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive diagnostic instrument used for imaging the retina. It is the technology for the future because it can enhance patient care. It has the ability to detect problems in the eye prior to any symptoms being present in the patient.

Photorefractive Keratectomy (PRK)

A photorefractive keratectomy is performed to treat refractive errors in your eyes. By using a laser to change the shape of your cornea, this procedure improves the way rays of light are focused on your retina.

Phototherapeutic Keratectomy (PTK)

Phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK) is a type of eye surgery that uses a laser to treat various ocular disorders by removing tissue from the cornea. PTK allows the removal of superficial corneal opacities and surface irregularities.

Pinguecula Treatment

Pinguecula is an abnormal growth of tissue on the conjunctiva, the clear membrane that covers the white of the eye. A pinguecula is a yellowish raised growth on the conjunctiva typically adjacent to the border where the colored part of the eye meets the white part of the eye.

Presbyopia Treatment

Presbyopia is the gradual loss of your eyes' ability to focus on nearby objects. It's a natural, often annoying part of aging. Presbyopia usually becomes noticeable in your early to mid-40s and continues to worsen until around age 65.

Pterygium Surgery

Pterygium surgery is a procedure performed to remove noncancerous conjunctiva growths (pterygia) from the eye. The conjunctiva is the clear tissue covering the white part of the eye and the inside of the eyelids. Some cases of a pterygium produce little to no symptoms.

Recurrent Corneal Erosion Treatment

Recurrent Corneal Erosion (RCE) syndrome is a common, recurrent condition caused by abnormal epithelial adhesion to the underlying basal lamina. The spontaneous breakdown of the corneal epithelium can lead to the sudden onset of ocular pain, blurred vision, tearing, and photophobia, typically upon awakening.

Refractive Eye Surgery

Refractive eye surgery is optional eye surgery used to improve the refractive state of the eye and decrease or eliminate dependency on glasses or contact lenses. This can include various methods of surgical remodeling of the cornea (keratomileusis), lens implantation or lens replacement.

Retinitis Pigmentosa Treatment

Retinitis pigmentosa is a group of related eye disorders that cause progressive vision loss. These disorders affect the retina, which is the layer of light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye . In people with retinitis pigmentosa, vision loss occurs as the light-sensing cells of the retina gradually deteriorate.

Small Incision Lenticule Extraction (SMILE)

Small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) is a relatively new refractive procedure designed to treat a multitude of refractive errors such as myopia, hyperopia, presbyopia, and astigmatism.

Staphyloma Treatment

A staphyloma is an abnormal protrusion of the uveal tissue through a weak point in the eyeball. The protrusion is generally black in colour, due to the inner layers of the eye. It occurs due to weakening of outer layer of eye (cornea or sclera) by an inflammatory or degenerative condition.

Strabismus Treatment

Strabismus (crossed eyes) is a condition in which the eyes do not line up with one another. In other words, one eye is turned in a direction that is different from the other eye. Under normal conditions, the six muscles that control eye movement work together and point both eyes at the same direction.

Tear Duct Surgery

A dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) is a surgery that creates a new path for tears to drain between your eyes and your nose. You may need this surgery if your tear duct has become blocked.

Trabeculectomy

Trabeculectomy is a type of glaucoma surgery performed on the eye that creates a new pathway for fluid inside the eye to be drained. This is an outpatient procedure performed in the operating room. It is used to prevent worsening of vision loss due to glaucoma by lowering eye pressure.

Vitrectomy

A vitrectomy is a type of eye surgery to treat various problems with the retina and vitreous. During the surgery, your surgeon removes the vitreous and replaces it with another solution. The vitreous is a gel-like substance that fills the middle portion of your eye.

Xanthelasma Removal

Xanthelasma is a well-circumscribed flat or slightly elevated yellowish growth that typically occurs on or around the eyelids. It is made up of cholesterol deposits that accumulate underneath the skin and is usually an obvious clinical diagnosis.
Neurology
Neurology 21 Services

Alzheimer's Disease Consultation

To diagnose Alzheimer's dementia, your primary doctor, a doctor trained in brain conditions (neurologist) or a doctor trained to treat older adults (geriatrician) will review your medical history, medication history and your symptoms. Your doctor will also conduct several tests.

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Consultation

These typically include an MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) of the neck, and sometimes of the head and lower spine, an EMG (electromyography) which tests nerve conduction, and a series of blood tests. Sometimes urine tests, genetic tests, or a lumbar puncture (also called a spinal tap) are also necessary.

Bell's Palsy Treatment

Patients with Bell's palsy should be treated within three days of the onset of symptoms with a seven-day course of oral acyclovir (Zovirax) or valacyclovir (Valtrex), plus a tapering course of oral prednisone.

Cauda Equina Syndrome Treatment

Cauda equina syndrome is best treated with decompression by a lumbar laminectomy, but a lumbar microdiscectomy may be used given a patient's unique situation. The patient will likely be kept in the hospital for a few days following the surgery to monitor recovery of motor and sensory function.

Cerebral Palsy Management

There is no cure for CP, but a child's quality of life can improve with: treatment that may involve medicine or surgery. therapy, including physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech therapy. special equipment to help kids get around and communicate with others.

Dementia Management

Dementia is a general term for loss of memory, language, problem-solving and other thinking abilities that are severe enough to interfere with daily life. Alzheimer's is the most common cause of dementia.

Epilepsy Consultation

Epilepsy is a central nervous system (neurological) disorder in which brain activity becomes abnormal, causing seizures or periods of unusual behavior, sensations and sometimes loss of awareness. Anyone can develop epilepsy.

Epilepsy Treatment

Epilepsy is a common condition that affects the brain and causes frequent seizures. Seizures are bursts of electrical activity in the brain that temporarily affect how it works. They can cause a wide range of symptoms. Epilepsy can start at any age, but usually starts either in childhood or in people over 60.

Huntington's Disease Consultation

Huntington's disease is a rare, inherited disease that causes the progressive breakdown (degeneration) of nerve cells in the brain. Huntington's disease has a broad impact on a person's functional abilities and usually results in movement, thinking (cognitive) and psychiatric disorders.

Migraine Treatment

A migraine is a headache that can cause severe throbbing pain or a pulsing sensation, usually on one side of the head. It's often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and extreme sensitivity to light and sound.

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Consultation

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a potentially disabling disease of the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system). In MS , the immune system attacks the protective sheath (myelin) that covers nerve fibers and causes communication problems between your brain and the rest of your body.

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Management

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a potentially disabling disease of the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system). In MS , the immune system attacks the protective sheath (myelin) that covers nerve fibers and causes communication problems between your brain and the rest of your body.

Neurological Rehabilitation

Neurological rehabilitation (rehab) is a doctor-supervised program designed for people with diseases, injury, or disorders of the nervous system. Neurological rehab can often improve function, reduce symptoms, and improve the well-being of the patient.

Neurology Consultation

Neurology is the branch of medicine concerned with the study and treatment of disorders of the nervous system. The nervous system is a complex, sophisticated system that regulates and coordinates body activities. It has two major divisions: Central nervous system: the brain and spinal cord.

Pain Management

Pain Management is a medical approach that draws on disciplines in science and alternative healing to study the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of pain.

Parkinson's Disease Consultation

Parkinson's disease is a progressive nervous system disorder that affects movement. Symptoms start gradually, sometimes starting with a barely noticeable tremor in just one hand. Tremors are common, but the disorder also commonly causes stiffness or slowing of movement.

Parkinson's Disease Treatment

Parkinson's disease is a progressive nervous system disorder that affects movement. Symptoms start gradually, sometimes starting with a barely noticeable tremor in just one hand. Tremors are common, but the disorder also commonly causes stiffness or slowing of movement.

Spina Bifida Consultation

Spina bifida is when a baby's spine and spinal cord does not develop properly in the womb, causing a gap in the spine. Spina bifida is a type of neural tube defect. The neural tube is the structure that eventually develops into the baby's brain and spinal cord.

Stroke Consultation

A stroke is a serious life-threatening medical condition that happens when the blood supply to part of the brain is cut off. Strokes are a medical emergency and urgent treatment is essential. The sooner a person receives treatment for a stroke, the less damage is likely to happen.

Torticollis Treatment

Torticollis is a problem involving the muscles of the neck that causes the head to tilt down. The term comes from two Latin words: tortus, which means twisted, and collum, which means neck. Sometimes it's called “wryneck.” If your baby has the condition at birth, it's called congenital muscular torticollis.

Trigeminal Neuralgia Treatment

Trigeminal neuralgia is sudden, severe facial pain. It's often described as a sharp shooting pain or like having an electric shock in the jaw, teeth or gums. It usually happens in short, unpredictable attacks that can last from a few seconds to about 2 minutes. The attacks stop as suddenly as they start.
Dermatology
Dermatology 29 Services

Acne Scar Treatment

Acne scars do not go away entirely on their own. Depressed acne scars often become more noticeable with age as skin loses collagen. However, there are a variety of treatments that can make acne scars less noticeable. Post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation or redness may lighten on its own within several months.

Acne Treatment

Acne usually goes away by itself by the end of puberty however in some situations it may continue in adulthood. Acne treatment aims to solve this problem with a professional medical approach.

Actinic Keratoses Treatment

Actinic keratoses can be removed by freezing them with liquid nitrogen. Your doctor applies the substance to the affected skin, which causes blistering or peeling. As your skin heals, the damaged cells slough off, allowing new skin to appear. Cryotherapy is the most common treatment.

Benign Growth Removal

Surgery is a common type of treatment for benign tumors. The goal is to remove the tumor without damaging surrounding tissues. Other types of treatment may include medication or radiation.

Cutaneous Horn Removal

If the lesion that is the underlying cause of a skin horn is benign (noncancerous), it is often treated by excision (surgical removal or resection) or with a procedure called curettage. This is a medical procedure involving the removal of tissue by scraping or scooping

Dermabrasion

Dermabrasion is a skin-resurfacing procedure that uses a rapidly rotating device to sand the outer layers of skin. Immediately after dermabrasion, treated skin will be reddish and swollen. The skin that grows back is usually smoother.

Dermatology Consultation

A dermatology consultation is a service provided by a dermatologist or dermatology clinic, sometimes for free, for patients who are seeking advice regarding existing problems that affect the skin, scalp, hair, nails, lips, and mouth, many of which can be diagnosed by a simple physical examination.

Dermoscopy

Dermoscopy or dermatoscopy refers to the examination of the skin using skin surface microscopy, and is also called 'epiluminoscopy' and 'epiluminescent microscopy'. Derm(at)oscopy is mainly used to evaluate pigmented skin lesions. In experienced hands it can make it easier to diagnose melanoma.

Excessive Sweating Treatment

Hyperhidrosis (hi-pur-hi-DROE-sis) is abnormally excessive sweating that's not necessarily related to heat or exercise. You may sweat so much that it soaks through your clothes or drips off your hands. Besides disrupting normal daily activities, this type of heavy sweating can cause social anxiety and embarrassment.

Hair and Scalp Treatment

Our scalp contains about 100,000 follicles, according to the American Academy of Dermatology Association. Like a seed sprouting a tree, each follicle contains a single hair that grows. The follicles also produce sebum, or oil, that helps keep the scalp moisturized and protects the skin from infection.

Hirsutism Treatment

Hirsutism is where women have thick, dark hair on their face, neck, chest, tummy, lower back, buttocks or thighs. See a GP if it's a problem for you. It might be caused by a medical condition that can be treated.

Ingrown Toenail Treatment

Ingrown toenails are a common condition in which the corner or side of a toenail grows into the soft flesh. The result is pain, inflamed skin, swelling and, sometimes, an infection. Ingrown toenails usually affect the big toe. Often you can take care of ingrown toenails on your own.

Melasma Treatment

Melasma is a skin condition characterized by brown or blue-gray patches or freckle-like spots. It's often called the “mask of pregnancy.” Melasma happens because of overproduction of the cells that make the color of your skin. It is common, harmless and some treatments may help.

Mesotherapy

Mesotherapy is a technique that uses injections of vitamins, enzymes, hormones, and plant extracts to rejuvenate and tighten skin, as well as remove excess fat. Michel Pistor, a doctor in France, developed the technique in 1952. It was originally used to relieve pain.

Milia Removal

The most common procedure for milia removal is de-roofing. Dermatologists use a sterile needle to remove the tiny flap of skin trapping the keratin flake inside the pore. They then squeeze or prick out the flake. A less-common practice is curettage, which is a form of electrosurgery.

Mole and Skin Lesion Evaluation

If a mole is elevated, or raised from of the skin, it should be considered suspicious. Change in color, especially multiple shades of dark brown or black; red, white and blue, Change or spreading of color from the edge of the mole into surrounding skin. Change in size, especially sudden or continuous enlargement.

Mole Removal

Mole removals, which is different than mole biopsy, is designed to completely remove moles from the skin in a way that minimizes scarring and creates a smooth, discreet finish. Moles are categorized as brown or black skin growths caused by the clustering of skin pigment cells, called melanocytes.

Nail Fungus Treatment

Nail fungus is a common condition that begins as a white or yellow spot under the tip of your fingernail or toenail. As the fungal infection goes deeper, nail fungus may cause your nail to discolor, thicken and crumble at the edge. It can affect several nails.

Photodynamic Therapy for Skin Problems

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a noninvasive treatment that utilizes light treatment along with application of a photosensitizing agent. In dermatology, PDT is commonly used and approved for the treatment of oncological conditions such as actinic keratosis, Bowen disease and superficial basal cell carcinoma.

Pigmentation Treatment

Pigmentation refers to the coloring of the skin. Skin pigmentation disorders cause changes to the color of your skin. Melanin is made by cells in the skin and is the pigment responsible for your skin's color. Hyperpigmentation is a condition that causes your skin to darken.

Psoriasis Treatment

Psoriasis is a skin disease that causes red, itchy scaly patches, most commonly on the knees, elbows, trunk and scalp. Psoriasis is a common, long-term (chronic) disease with no cure. It tends to go through cycles, flaring for a few weeks or months, then subsiding for a while or going into remission.

Rosacea Treatment

Rosacea is a common skin condition that causes blushing or flushing and visible blood vessels in your face. It may also produce small, pus-filled bumps. These signs and symptoms may flare up for weeks to months and then go away for a while.

Skin Biopsy

A skin biopsy is a procedure healthcare providers use to diagnose skin conditions. It can help identify a rash, infection, psoriasis or skin cancer. During a biopsy, your provider removes a small sample of skin tissue. In the lab, experts analyze the sample under a microscope.

Skin Lesion Removal

Skin lesion removal is a procedure or surgery to remove growths on your skin. You may have a skin lesion removed because it is too big, bothersome, or uncomfortable. Or you may have a lesion removed because it could be cancerous or precancerous. Often the doctor can remove simple skin lesions during a routine visit.

Skin Tag (Acrochordon) Removal

Skin tags are small, noncancerous growths that form when the skin rubs against itself. They typically don't require treatment. But if their appearance bothers you, you can undergo a skin tag removal procedure.

Spider Veins Treatment

Spider veins are small, damaged veins that can appear on the surface of the legs or face. They are usually not painful or harmful, but some people may wish to treat them for cosmetic reasons. Spider veins can be blue, purple, or red and may appear in the form of thin lines, webs, or branches.

Stretch Marks Removal

Stretch marks (striae) are indented streaks that appear on the abdomen, breasts, hips, buttocks or other places on the body. They're common in pregnant women, especially during the last trimester. Stretch marks aren't painful or harmful, but some people don't like the way they make their skin look.

Vitiligo Treatment

Vitiligo is a condition in which the skin loses its pigment cells (melanocytes). This can result in discolored patches in different areas of the body, including the skin, hair and mucous membranes. Vitiligo is a disease that causes loss of skin color in patches.

Warts Removal

Warts are tiny skin infections caused by viruses of the human papillomavirus (HPV) family. Although kids get warts most often, teens and adults can get them too. Sometimes warts are sexually transmitted and appear in the genital area. But most warts affect the fingers, hands, and feet.
General Medicine
General Medicine 18 Services

Abdominal Examination

An abdominal examination is a portion of the physical examination which a physician or nurse uses to clinically observe the abdomen of a patient for signs of disease

Bone Marrow Transplant

Bone marrow transplant (BMT) is a special therapy for patients with certain cancers or other diseases. A bone marrow transplant involves taking cells that are normally found in the bone marrow (stem cells), filtering those cells, and giving them back either to the donor (patient) or to another person.

Cryosurgery

Cryosurgery is a type of surgery that involves the use of extreme cold to destroy abnormal tissues, such as tumors. The surgery most often involves the use of liquid nitrogen, although carbon dioxide and argon may also be used.

Deep Wound Treatment

An open wound is an injury involving an external or internal break in body tissue, usually involving the skin. Nearly everyone will experience an open wound at some point in their life. Most open wounds are minor and can be treated at home.

Doctor Consultation

Medical consultation means a consultation which takes place between an employee and a licensed physician for the purpose of determining what medical examinations or procedures, if any, are appropriate in cases where a significant exposure to a hazardous chemical may have taken place.

Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy (ESWT)

Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy (ESWT), sometimes referred to as EPAT Therapy or simply “Shockwave,” is a non-invasive therapy used to treat pain and promote healing by delivering high-energy sound waves to injured or damaged tissue during short treatment sessions.

Female Health Checkup

A full check up for women includes a comprehensive work-up for general health, including heart diseases, cholesterol, diabetes, major organ functions, osteoporosis and common cancers like liver and colon cancer. During the tests, the doctor may ask you some questions.

Follow-Up Check

(FAH-loh-up kayr) Care given to a patient over time after finishing treatment for a disease. Follow-up care involves regular medical checkups, which may include a physical exam, blood tests, and imaging tests.

General Medicine Consultation

Also referred to as a medical consultation, a general consultation is a meeting between a physician and a patient.

Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia (HSP) Treatment

Hereditary spastic paraplegia is a general term for a group of rare inherited disorders that cause weakness and stiffness in the leg muscles. Symptoms gradually get worse over time. It's also known as familial spastic paraparesis or Strümpell-Lorrain syndrome.

Hyperbaric Medicine

Hyperbaric medicine is medical treatment in which an ambient pressure greater than sea level atmospheric pressure is a necessary component.

Lumbar Puncture

A lumbar puncture (spinal tap) is performed in your lower back, in the lumbar region. During a lumbar puncture, a needle is inserted between two lumbar bones (vertebrae) to remove a sample of cerebrospinal fluid. This is the fluid that surrounds your brain and spinal cord to protect them from injury.

Male Health Checkup

A men's health check is a screening service that can detect the early warning signs of a range of health conditions affecting men, such as diabetes and prostate cancer. Using the results of these health tests, specialists can build a clear picture of what your current health is like and identify any future risks.

Marfan Syndrome Treatment

Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a rare multi-systemic genetic disorder that affects the connective tissue. Those with the condition tend to be tall and thin, with long arms, legs, fingers, and toes. They also typically have overly-flexible joints and scoliosis.

Medical Examination

The medical examination will include a medical history review, physical examination, chest X-ray and blood tests for syphilis. The physical examination will at least include examination of the eyes, ears, nose and throat, extremities, heart, lungs, abdomen, lymph nodes and skin.

Medical Report

A medical report is a comprehensive report that covers a person's clinical history. A medical report is a vital piece of evidence that can validate and support your claim for Social Security Disability benefits.

Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) Injection

Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapy uses injections of a concentration of a patient's own platelets to accelerate the healing of injured tendons, ligaments, muscles and joints. In this way, PRP injections use each individual patient's own healing system to improve musculoskeletal problems.

Vaccination

Vaccination is a simple, safe, and effective way of protecting you against harmful diseases, before you come into contact with them. It uses your body's natural defenses to build resistance to specific infections and makes your immune system stronger.
Bariatric Surgery
Bariatric Surgery 9 Services

Bariatric Surgery Consultation

For TWO WEEKS BEFORE your operation, you should follow this diet to prepare your body for surgery. You will be informed of the date to begin the preoperative diet by the bariatric team. The recommended preoperative diet will consist of a prescribed amount of a high protein drink plus one meal.

Biliopancreatic Diversion with Duodenal Switch (BPD/DS)

Biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (BPD/DS) is a type of surgery to cause weight loss. It's also known as the duodenal switch. This type of bariatric surgery changes the size of your stomach and the length of your small intestine. It limits how much food you can eat, digest, and absorb.

Gastric Balloon Treatment

Intragastric balloon placement is a weight-loss procedure that involves placing a saline-filled silicone balloon in your stomach. This helps you lose weight by limiting how much you can eat and making you feel fuller faster.

Gastric Band Surgery

Gastric band surgery is a common type of weight-loss (bariatric) surgery for people who are very overweight or severely obese. It involves putting an adjustable band around the top part of your stomach, so you can't eat as much.

Gastric Bypass Surgery

Gastric bypass is surgery that helps you lose weight by changing how your stomach and small intestine handle the food you eat. After the surgery, your stomach will be smaller. You will feel full with less food. The food you eat will no longer go into some parts of your stomach and small intestine that absorb food.

Gastric Plication

Gastric plication is a minimally invasive endoscopic procedure in which the stomach is folded in on itself and sutured (stitched) to make it smaller and shorter. This procedure reduces the amount of food your stomach can hold and helps you feel full faster and stay full longer.

Gastric Sleeve

Gastric sleeve surgery is a type of weight-loss surgery. Weight-loss surgery is also called bariatric surgery. This surgery also known as sleeve gastrectomy or vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG). Gastric sleeve surgery restricts your food intake, which leads to weight loss. You may lose from 50 to 90 pounds.

Mini Gastric Bypass

The Mini Gastric Bypass (MGB) is a short, simple, successful, reversible laparoscopic gastric bypass weight loss surgery. It has been recently renamed as One Anastomosis Gastric Bypass. The operation usually takes shorter time, with lesser or similar hospital stay as regular bypass.

POSE Procedure (Primary Obesity Surgery - Endolumenal)

Primary obesity surgery endoluminal (POSE) is an endoscopic technique that in- volves placement of a gastric transmural plications in the fundus and pre-antral area to trigger earlier physiologic feedback of fullness and less hunger.
Spinal Surgery
Spinal Surgery 33 Services

Artificial Disc Replacement

Artificial disc replacement (ADR), or total disc replacement (TDR), is a type of arthroplasty. It is a surgical procedure in which degenerated intervertebral discs in the spinal column are replaced with artificial disc implants in the lumbar (lower) or cervical (upper) spine. The procedure is used to treat chronic, severe low back pain and cervical pain resulting from degenerative disc disease. Cervical disc replacement is also an alternative intervention for symptomatic disc herniation with associated arm and hand symptoms.

Cervical Disc Disease Treatment

The first line in treatment for cervical disc disease is over-the-counter pain medications, including acetaminophen (Tylenol), and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications such as ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil) and naproxen (Aleve). These medications can help reduce pain and inflammation.

Cervical Spondylosis Treatment

Cervical spondylosis is the natural wearing down of cartilage, disks, ligaments and bones in your neck. Main symptoms include neck pain or stiffness. Physical therapy; ice, heat, massage; soft collar and drugs are first-to-be-tried approaches

Corpectomy

A corpectomy is a procedure that removes damaged vertebrae and intervertebral discs that are compressing the spinal cord and spinal nerves. An anterior surgical approach means “from the front of the body,” and the cervical spine is the spine in the neck.

Costotransversectomy

Costotransversectomy uses a posterolateral window removing a portion of the rib, allowing for exposure of the costovertebral joints, neural foramina, and lateral spinal canal.

Foraminotomy

A foraminotomy is a surgical procedure. It enlarges the area around one of the bones in your spinal column. The surgery relieves pressure on compressed nerves. Your spinal column is made up of a chain of bones called vertebrae.

Intradiscal Electrothermic Therapy (IDET)

Intradiscal (intradiskal) electrothermal therapy (IDET), or intradiscal electrothermal annuloplasty (IDEA), is a minimally invasive technique for the treatment of diskogenic low back pain. IDET involves the percutaneous threading of a flexible catheter into the disk under fluoroscopic guidance.

Kyphoplasty

Kyphoplasty is a minimally invasive surgery used to treat a spinal compression fracture. Spinal compression fractures occur primarily in spinal vertebrae that have been weakened by osteoporosis.

Kyphosis Treatment

Kyphosis is curvature of the spine that causes the top of the back to appear more rounded than normal. Everyone has some degree of curvature in their spine. However, a curve of more than 45 degrees is considered excessive.

Laminectomy

Laminectomy is a type of surgery in which a surgeon removes part or all of the vertebral bone (lamina). This helps ease pressure on the spinal cord or the nerve roots that may be caused by injury, herniated disk, narrowing of the canal (spinal stenosis), or tumors.

Lumbar Disc Disease Treatment

Lumbar disk disease may occur when a disc in the low back area of the spine bulges or herniates from between the bony area of the spine. Lumbar disk disease causes lower back pain and leg pain and weakness that is made worse by movement and activity.

Lumbar Spondylosis Treatment

Lumbar spondylosis is an age-related degeneration of the vertebrae and disks of the lower back. These changes are often called degenerative disk disease and osteoarthritis. The common condition is marked by the breakdown of one or more of the disks that separate the bones of the spine.

Nucleoplasty

Nucleoplasty is a minimally invasive alternative for treating the disc bulge. Performed in an outpatient setting, this procedure uses a needle that emits radio waves to shrink a disc bulge by dissolving excess tissue. This relieves the pressure inside the disc and on the nerves responsible for causing pain.

Nucleotomy

Nucleotomy is a surgical procedure for removal of tissue surrounding a herniated disk.

Scoliosis Surgery

The operation for scoliosis is a spinal fusion. The basic idea is to realign and fuse together the curved vertebrae so that they heal into a single, solid bone. With the tools and technology available today, scoliosis surgeons are able to improve curves significantly.

Scoliosis Treatment

Scoliosis is a sideways curvature of the spine that most often is diagnosed in adolescents. While scoliosis can occur in people with conditions such as cerebral palsy and muscular dystrophy, the cause of most childhood scoliosis is unknown.

Spinal Arteriovenous Malformation (AVM) Treatment

A spinal arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is an abnormal tangle of blood vessels on, in or near the spinal cord. Spinal arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a rare, abnormal tangle of blood vessels on, in or near the spinal cord. Without treatment, spinal AVM can permanently damage your spinal cord.

Spinal Arthroscopy

An arthroscopic discectomy is a procedure designed to decompress the spine in order to correct a herniated disc of the cervical or lumbar spine.

Spinal Cord Injury Treatment

A spinal cord injury (SCI) is damage to the spinal cord that causes temporary or permanent changes in its function. Symptoms may include loss of muscle function, sensation, or autonomic function in the parts of the body served by the spinal cord below the level of the injury.

Spinal Disc Herniation Treatment

A herniated disk refers to a problem with one of the rubbery cushions (disks) that sit between the bones (vertebrae) that stack to make your spine. A spinal disk has a soft, jellylike center (nucleus) encased in a tougher, rubbery exterior (annulus).

Spinal Fusion Surgery

Spinal fusion is major surgery. It usually lasts several hours. It involves making a cut in your back or your belly, or sometimes both. The cuts, called incisions, leave scars that fade with time.

Spinal Hematoma Treatment

Spinal hematoma, defined as symptomatic bleeding within the spinal neuraxis, is a rare and potentially catastrophic complication of spinal or epidural anesthesia.

Spinal Stabilization

Spine stabilization refers to the surgical procedures that correct spinal instability and deformity while they optimize the physiological weight-bearing function and mobility of the spinal column.

Spinal Stenosis Treatment

Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of the spaces within your spine, which can put pressure on the nerves that travel through the spine. Spinal stenosis occurs most often in the lower back and the neck. Some people with spinal stenosis may not have symptoms.

Spinal Surgery Consultation

Spinal surgery is performed to correct spinal pathologies that cause pain. Back surgery is used to relieve the pain and/or numbness associated with this pain, which often radiates to other areas of the back, arms and legs. Normally, back and spinal pain is caused by the compression of a nerve within it.

Spinal Tumor Removal

A spinal tumor is a growth that develops within your spinal canal or within the bones of your spine. A spinal cord tumor, also called an intradural tumor, is a spinal tumor that that begins within the spinal cord or the covering of the spinal cord (dura).

Spine Examination

Tests for the Patient's Motor Skills and Reflexes – This includes tests that measure muscle strength, note posture, evaluate abnormal movement or motions, measure muscle tone, and check general reflexes.

Spine Surgery

Spinal laminectomy/spinal decompression. This is performed when spinal stenosis causes a narrowing of the spinal canal that results in pain, numbness, or weakness. The surgeon removes the bony walls of the vertebrae and any bone spurs, aiming to open up the spinal column to remove pressure on the nerves.

Spondylolisthesis Stabilisation

Minimally invasive surgery is done through several small incisions, as opposed to one big incision—that's how traditional spine surgery is done. Using microscopes and very small instruments, the surgeon can treat spondylolisthesis by doing a decompression and fusion.

Tethered Spinal Cord Syndrome Treatment

Tethered spinal cord syndrome is a neurologic disorder caused by tissue attachments that limit the movement of the spinal cord within the spinal column. These attachments cause an abnormal stretching of the spinal cord. This syndrome is closely associated with spina bifida.

Treatment for Spinal Cord Abscess

A spinal cord abscess (SCA) is a rare condition than can cause permanent damage to your spinal cord. An abscess is a swollen area in your tissues that contains a buildup of pus. It happens when injured tissues becomes infected. Your body's immune system sends white blood cells to help fight off infection.

Treatment for Spinal Fractures

A spinal fracture is a dislocation or fracture of the vertebrae (backbone) and can occur anywhere along the spine. Most spinal fractures are caused from injury or trauma from car accidents, falls, sports or some sort of high velocity impact.

Vertebroplasty

Vertebroplasty is an outpatient procedure for stabilizing compression fractures in the spine. Bone cement is injected into back bones (vertebrae) that have cracked or broken, often because of osteoporosis. The cement hardens, stabilizing the fractures and supporting your spine.
Radiology
Radiology 36 Services

Abdominal CT Scan

Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen and pelvis is a diagnostic imaging test. Doctors use it to help detect diseases of the small bowel, colon, and other internal organs. It is often used to determine the cause of unexplained pain.

Abdominal Ultrasound

An abdominal ultrasound is a noninvasive procedure used to assess the organs and structures within the abdomen. This includes the liver, gallbladder, pancreas, bile ducts, spleen, and abdominal aorta. Ultrasound technology allows quick visualization of the abdominal organs and structures from outside the body.

Bone Mineral Densitometry (BMD)

Bone density scanning, also called dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) or bone densitometry, is an enhanced form of x-ray technology that is used to measure bone loss. DXA is today's established standard for measuring bone mineral density (BMD).

Breast Imaging

The most commonly used breast imaging tests at this time are mammograms, ultrasound, and breast MRI. Other tests, such as CT scans, bone scans, or PET scans might sometimes be done to help find out if breast cancer has spread. Newer types of tests are now being developed for breast imaging.

Cerebral Angiogram

Cerebral angiography is a diagnostic test that uses an X-ray. It produces a cerebral angiogram, or an image that can help your doctor find blockages or other abnormalities in the blood vessels of your head and neck. Blockages or abnormalities can lead to a stroke or bleeding in the brain.

Chest X-Ray

Chest X-rays produce images of your heart, lungs, blood vessels, airways, and the bones of your chest and spine. Chest X-rays can also reveal fluid in or around your lungs or air surrounding a lung.

Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT)

Cone beam computed tomography is a medical imaging technique consisting of X-ray computed tomography where the X-rays are divergent, forming a cone. CBCT has become increasingly important in treatment planning and diagnosis in implant dentistry, ENT, orthopedics, and interventional radiology, among other things.

CT Angiogram (Computed Tomography Angiogram)

CT angiography is a type of medical test that combines a CT scan with an injection of a special dye to produce pictures of blood vessels and tissues in a part of your body. The dye is injected through an intravenous (IV) line started in your arm or hand.

CT Scan (Computed Tomography)

A CT scan or computed tomography scan is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to obtain detailed internal images of the body noninvasively for diagnostic purposes. The personnel that perform CT scans are called radiographers or radiology technologists.

Diagnostic Imaging Consultation

In a diagnostic radiology consultation, the radiologist will be presented with all the information regarding the patient's condition, particularly the symptoms being experienced. The radiologist will then recommend the most appropriate imaging scans in order to come up with an accurate diagnosis.

Diagnostic X-Rays

Diagnostic X-ray, or radiography, is a special method for taking pictures of areas inside the body. A machine focuses a small amount of radiation on the area of the body to be examined. The X-rays pass through the body, creating an image on film or a computer display.

Electroencephalography (EEG)

Electroencephalography (EEG) is a method to record an electrogram of the electrical activity on the scalp that has been shown to represent the macroscopic activity of the surface layer of the brain underneath. It is typically non-invasive, with the electrodes placed along the scalp.

Electromyogram (EMG)

Electromyography (EMG) measures muscle response or electrical activity in response to a nerve's stimulation of the muscle. The test is used to help detect neuromuscular abnormalities. During the test, one or more small needles (also called electrodes) are inserted through the skin into the muscle.

Fibroscan

Fibroscan is a non-invasive test that helps assess the health of your liver. Specifically, it uses ultrasound technology to determine the degree of fibrosis or scarring that may be present in your liver from various liver diseases or conditions.

Fluoroscopy

Fluoroscopy is a medical procedure that makes a real-time video of the movements inside a part of the body by passing x-rays through the body over a period of time. X-rays are a form of ionizing radiation.

Full Body CT Scan

The Total Body CT scan analyzes three major areas of the body: the lungs, the heart, and the abdomen/pelvis. The lung CT can detect early, potentially malignant nodules. In the heart, the scan can detect aortic aneurysms and calcium deposits within plaque in the coronary arteries.

Full Body MRA (Magnetic Resonance Angiography)

MRA stands for Magnetic Resonance Angiogram or MR Angiography. Your doctor may ask you to get one in order to look for and treat problems with your blood vessels. The test can check the blood vessels in many different parts of your body: Brain or neck.

Full Body PET CT Scan

A PET-CT scan is a nuclear medicine imaging test used commonly to detect a range of cancers, heart diseases, neurological conditions, infections and PUO (Pyrexia of Unknown Origin). Radioactive glucose is injected and then taken up by tissues, which are in fasting state in your body.

Full Body PET-MRI Scan

A whole-body PET scan can detect differences in body functions, such as blood flow, use of oxygen, and uptake of sugar (glucose) molecules. This allows your doctor to see how certain organs are functioning.

Full Body Ultrasound Scan

An ultrasound scan, sometimes called a sonogram, is a procedure that uses high-frequency sound waves to create an image of part of the inside of the body. An ultrasound scan can be used to monitor an unborn baby, diagnose a condition, or guide a surgeon during certain procedures.

Head CT Scan

Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray equipment to help assess head injuries, severe headaches, dizziness, and other symptoms of aneurysm, bleeding, stroke, and brain tumors. It also helps your doctor to evaluate your face, sinuses, and skull or to plan radiation therapy for brain cancer.

Head Ultrasound

A head ultrasound uses sound waves to make images of the brain. An ultrasound machine sends sound waves into the head and images are recorded on a computer. The black-and-white images show the internal structure of the brain, including the ventricles (the fluid-filled cavities in the brain) and the blood vessels.

Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography (MRCP)

MRCP is a subtype of an MRI scan that is better suited for detailed images of the pancreas, gallbladder, and bile ducts. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a test that uses powerful magnets, radio waves, and a computer to get detailed pictures of body organs.

Mammography

Mammography (also called mastography) is the process of using low-energy X-rays (usually around 30 kVp) to examine the human breast for diagnosis and screening. The goal of mammography is the early detection of breast cancer, typically through detection of characteristic masses or microcalcifications.

MRI Scan (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the body uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to produce detailed pictures of the inside of your body. It may be used to help diagnose or monitor treatment for a variety of conditions within the chest, abdomen, and pelvis.

Nuclear Scans

A nuclear medicine scan uses small amounts of radiation to create pictures of tissues, bones, and organs inside the body. The radioactive material collects in certain areas of your body, and special cameras find the radiation and make images that help your medical team diagnose and treat cancer and other illnesses.

Pelvic Ultrasound

A pelvic ultrasound is a noninvasive diagnostic exam that produces images that are used to assess organs and structures within the female pelvis. A pelvic ultrasound allows quick visualization of the female pelvic organs and structures including the uterus, cervix, vagina, fallopian tubes and ovaries.

PET Scan (Positron Emission Tomography)

A positron emission tomography (PET) scan is an imaging test that can help reveal the metabolic or biochemical function of your tissues and organs. The PET scan uses a radioactive drug (tracer) to show both normal and abnormal metabolic activity.

Radionuclide Scans

Radionuclide scanning is used to diagnose, stage, and monitor disease. A small amount of a radioactive chemical (radionuclide) is injected into a vein or swallowed. Different radionuclides travel through the blood to different organs.

Renal Angiogram

A renal angiogram is an imaging test to look at the blood vessels in your kidneys. Your healthcare provider can use it to look at the ballooning of a blood vessel (aneurysm), narrowing of a blood vessel (stenosis), or blockages in a blood vessel. He or she can also see how well blood is flowing to your kidneys.

Stereotactic Breast Biopsy

Stereotactic breast biopsy uses mammography – a specific type of breast imaging that uses low-dose x-rays — to help locate a breast abnormality and remove a tissue sample for examination under a microscope.

Testicular Ultrasound

Ultrasound imaging of the scrotum uses sound waves to produce pictures of a male's testicles and surrounding tissues.

Thyroid Ultrasound

Thyroid ultrasound is a sound wave picture of the thyroid gland taken by a hand-held instrument and translated to a 2-dimensional picture on a monitor. It is used in diagnosis of tumors, cysts or goiters of the thyroid, and is a painless, no-risk procedure.

Ultrasound Scan

An ultrasound scan, sometimes called a sonogram, is a procedure that uses high-frequency sound waves to create an image of part of the inside of the body. An ultrasound scan can be used to monitor an unborn baby, diagnose a condition, or guide a surgeon during certain procedures.

Vascular Ultrasound

Vascular ultrasound uses sound waves to evaluate the body's circulatory system and help identify blockages in the arteries and veins and detect blood clots.

Virtual Colonoscopy

Virtual colonoscopy is a special X-ray examination of the colon using low dose computed tomography (CT). It is a less invasive procedure than a conventional colonoscopy. A radiologist reviews the images from the virtual colonoscopy to look for polyps on the inside of the colon that can sometimes turn into colon cancer.
Oncology
Oncology 111 Services

Acute Leukemia Treatment

If you've been diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), your cancer care team will discuss your treatment options with you. Your options may be affected by the AML subtype, as well as certain other prognostic factors, as well as your age and overall state of health.

Adrenal Cancer Treatment

Adrenal cancer treatment usually involves surgery to remove all of the cancer. Other treatments might be used to prevent the cancer from coming back or if surgery isn't an option.

Anal Cancer Treatment

The main treatment for anal cancer is a combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy, called chemoradiation (or chemoradiotherapy). Other treatments include chemotherapy or radiotherapy on their own, and surgery. The specialist care team looking after you will: explain the treatments, benefits and side effects.

Angiosarcoma Treatment

Chemotherapy is the main treatment option for metastatic angiosarcoma despite it is hampered by the toxicities of frequently-used agents which are recommended in treatment.

Astrocytoma Treatment

Grade III astrocytoma: Treatment depends on the size and location of the tumor, what it looks like under the microscope and how far it has spread. The standard treatment is surgery and radiation therapy, accompanied or followed by chemotherapy. If surgery is not possible, radiation and chemotherapy may be recommended.

Benign Soft Tissue Tumor Treatment

The vast majority of benign soft tissue tumors can be treated with a single clean surgical procedure and minimal risk to surrounding normal blood vessels, nerves, muscle or bone. This provides the patient with the greatest possible functional recovery and the least chance of local recurrence of the tumor.

Bile Duct Cancer Treatment

Treatment of resectable distal bile duct cancer may include: Surgery to remove the cancer, which may include a Whipple procedure. Stent placement or percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage as palliative therapy, to relieve jaundice and other symptoms and improve the quality of life

Bladder Cancer Treatment

Bladder cancer treatment may include: Surgery, to remove the cancer cells. Chemotherapy in the bladder (intravesical chemotherapy), to treat cancers that are confined to the lining of the bladder but have a high risk of recurrence or progression to a higher stage.

Blastoma Treatment

Blastoma treatments are similar to those for other types of cancer and include surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy.

Brachytherapy

Brachytherapy is a type of internal radiation therapy in which seeds, ribbons, or capsules that contain a radiation source are placed in your body, in or near the tumor. Brachytherapy is a local treatment and treats only a specific part of your body.

Brainstem Glioma Treatment

Brain stem glioma is a type of central nervous system (CNS; brain and spinal cord) tumor. This type of tumor begins when healthy cells in the brain stem change and grow out of control, forming a mass called a tumor. A tumor can be cancerous or benign.

Breast Cancer Treatment

Surgery is usually the first type of treatment for breast cancer. The type of surgery you have will depend on the type of breast cancer you have. Surgery is usually followed by chemotherapy or radiotherapy or, in some cases, hormone or targeted therapies.

Cancer Marker Blood Test

Tumor marker tests use a sample of blood to look for chemicals made by cancer cells. These tests don't always help with diagnosing cancer because many healthy cells also make these chemicals. And some conditions that aren't cancer can cause high levels of tumor markers

Cancer Screening

Cancer screening is looking for cancer before a person has any symptoms. Screening tests can help find cancer at an early stage, before symptoms appear. When abnormal tissue or cancer is found early, it may be easier to treat or cure.

Cancer Staging

Cancer staging is the process of determining the extent to which a cancer has developed by growing and spreading. Contemporary practice is to assign a number from I to IV to a cancer, with I being an isolated cancer and IV being a cancer that has spread to the limit of what the assessment measures

Castleman Disease Treatment

Unicentric Castleman disease can be cured by surgically removing the diseased lymph node. If the lymph node is in your chest or abdomen — which is often the case — major surgery may be required. If surgical removal isn't possible, medication may be used to shrink the lymph node.

Central Nervous System (CNS) Lymphoma Treatment

Treatment of newly diagnosed primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma may include the following: Whole-brain radiation therapy. Chemotherapy with or without radiation therapy. Targeted therapy alone (rituximab, nivolumab, or ibrutinib).

Cervical Cancer Treatment

Most early-stage cervical cancers are treated with a radical hysterectomy operation, which involves removing the cervix, uterus, part of the vagina and nearby lymph nodes.

Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy is a drug treatment that uses powerful chemicals to kill fast-growing cells in your body. Chemotherapy is most often used to treat cancer, since cancer cells grow and multiply much more quickly than most cells in the body. Many different chemotherapy drugs are available.

Chondroblastoma Treatment

The goal for treatment of chondroblastoma is to remove the tumor and prevent damage to the end of the affected bone.

Chondrosarcoma Treatment

Chondrosarcomas is a group of rare bone cancer tumors that begin in your cartilage. Cartilage is soft connective tissue that allows movement between your bones and joints. The most common treatment is surgery to remove cancerous tissue and bone.

Chordoma Treatment

The primary treatment for chordoma is surgical excision with wide local margins, when possible. Radiotherapy also plays a significant role in the adjuvant setting and when surgery is not possible.

Choroid Plexus Tumor Treatment

The first treatment for choroid plexus tumors is surgery, if possible. The goal of surgery is to obtain tissue to determine the tumor type and to remove as much tumor as possible without causing more symptoms for the person. Treatments after surgery may include radiation, chemotherapy, or clinical trials.

Chronic Leukemia Treatment

Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia is a type of cancer that affects the white blood cells and tends to progress slowly over many years. It mostly affects people over the age of 60 and is rare in people under 40. Children are almost never affected.

Colon/Bowel Cancer Treatment

Treatment for colon cancer usually involves surgery to remove the cancer. Other treatments, such as radiation therapy and chemotherapy, might also be recommended.

Craniopharyngioma Treatment

A rare, benign (not cancer) brain tumor that usually forms near the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus. Craniopharyngiomas are slow-growing and do not spread to other parts of the brain or to other parts of the body.

CyberKnife Treatment

CyberKnife, also known as stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), is a non-surgical solution which destroys tumors by aiming beams of radiation at them from multiple directions while sparing healthy tissues.

Dysembryoplastic Neuroepithelial Tumor Treatment

The most common DNET treatment is to remove the tumor surgically. Because it is a benign tumor, and prognosis is good even if not the entire tumor is not removed, radiation and chemotherapy are not used.

Endometrial Cancer Treatment

Treatment for endometrial cancer is usually with surgery to remove the uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries. Another option is radiation therapy with powerful energy. Drug treatments for endometrial cancer include chemotherapy with powerful drugs and hormone therapy to block hormones that cancer cells rely on.

Ependymoblastoma Treatment

Ependymoblastoma is a highly malignant brain cancer of childhood and is usually seen in the very young child or infant. It is rare among brain cancers in general, but these brain cancers are the second most common malignancy in the childhood age group, second only to leukemia.

Ependymoma Treatment

Vestibular rehabilitation is an exercise-based program, designed by a specialty-trained vestibular physical therapist, to improve balance and reduce problems related to dizziness.

Esophageal Cancer Treatment

Esophageal cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the esophagus. Smoking, heavy alcohol use, and Barrett esophagus can increase the risk of esophageal cancer. Signs and symptoms of esophageal cancer are weight loss and painful or difficult swallowing.

Gallbladder Cancer Treatment

Gallbladder cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the gallbladder. Gallbladder cancer is a rare disease in which malignant (cancer) cells are found in the tissues of the gallbladder. The gallbladder is a pear-shaped organ that lies just under the liver in the upper abdomen.

Ganglioglioma Treatment

Ganglioglioma is a very rare type of glioma brain tumour that contains a mixture of neuronal and glial cells, and hence is part of a group of tumours classified as mixed neuronal-glial tumours. Neuronal cells are those that form the neurons in the brain, which primarily carry information.

Germ Cell Tumor (GCT) Treatment

Germ cell tumor (GCT) is a neoplasm derived from germ cells. Germ-cell tumors can be cancerous or benign. Germ cells normally occur inside the gonads (ovary and testis). GCTs that originate outside the gonads may be birth defects resulting from errors during development of the embryo.

Gestational Trophoblastic Disease (GTD) Treatment

Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is a group of rare diseases in which abnormal trophoblast cells grow inside the uterus after conception. In gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD), a tumor develops inside the uterus from tissue that forms after conception (the joining of sperm and egg).

Glioblastoma Treatment

Glioblastoma is an aggressive type of cancer that can occur in the brain or spinal cord. Glioblastoma forms from cells called astrocytes that support nerve cells. Glioblastoma can occur at any age, but tends to occur more often in older adults. It can cause worsening headaches, nausea, vomiting and seizures.

Head and Neck Cancer Treatment

Head and neck cancer develops from tissues in the lip and oral cavity (mouth), larynx (throat), salivary glands, nose, sinuses or the skin of the face. The most common types of head and neck cancers occur in the lip, mouth, and larynx. Symptoms predominantly include a sore that does not heal or a change in the voice.

Hematology Oncology Consultation

Hematology-oncology is the overlap of these two specialist branches of medicine concerned with diagnosing, treating and studying cancers of the blood cells, bone marrow and related tissues.

High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU)

High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a non-invasive therapy that uses focused ultrasound waves to thermally ablate a portion of tissue, meaning the tissue is destroyed using intense heat.

Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment

The main treatments for Hodgkin lymphoma are chemotherapy alone, or chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy. Occasionally, chemotherapy may be combined with steroid medicine. Surgery isn't generally used to treat the condition, except for the biopsy used to diagnose it.

Hormone Therapy for Cancer

Hormone therapy is used to treat cancers that use hormones to grow, such as some prostate and breast cancers. Hormone therapy is a cancer treatment that slows or stops the growth of cancer that uses hormones to grow. Hormone therapy is also called hormonal therapy, hormone treatment, or endocrine therapy.Apr 29, 2015

Hyperthermia Therapy

Hyperthermia is an abnormally high body temperature. Also called heat illnesses, there are several forms of hyperthermia. Heat cramps are fairly mild, whereas heat exhaustion is more severe. Heatstroke is the most serious form of hyperthermia and can be life-threatening.

Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy (HIPEC)

Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) surgery is a two-step procedure that treats certain cancers in the abdomen. Cancerous tumors are surgically removed, and then heated chemotherapy drugs are applied directly inside the abdomen to eliminate the remaining cancerous cells.

Immunotherapy

Immunotherapy is a type of cancer treatment that helps your immune system fight cancer. The immune system helps your body fight infections and other diseases. It is made up of white blood cells and organs and tissues of the lymph system. Immunotherapy is a type of biological therapy.

Intraoperative Radiation Therapy (IORT)

Intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) is an intensive radiation treatment that's administered during surgery. IORT allows direct radiation to the target area while sparing normal surrounding tissue.

Ion Beam Cancer Therapy

For certain kinds of cancer, the most effective therapy does not use x-rays or gamma rays but beams of ions, the electrically charged cores of atoms, including hydrogen ions (protons) and heavier ions such as carbon and neon.

Kaposi's Sarcoma Treatment

Surgery, including local excision or electrodesiccation and curettage. Cryosurgery. Radiation therapy. Chemotherapy using one or more anticancer drugs.

Kidney Cancer Treatment

Kidney cancer is cancer that begins in the kidneys. Your kidneys are two bean-shaped organs, each about the size of your fist. They're located behind your abdominal organs, with one kidney on each side of your spine. In adults, renal cell carcinoma is the most common type of kidney cancer.

Laryngeal Cancer Treatment

Laryngeal cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the larynx. Use of tobacco products and drinking too much alcohol can affect the risk of laryngeal cancer. Signs and symptoms of laryngeal cancer include a sore throat and ear pain.

Liver Cancer Treatment

Liver cancer (also known as hepatic cancer, primary hepatic cancer, or primary hepatic malignancy) is cancer that starts in the liver. Liver cancer can be primary (starts in liver) or secondary (meaning cancer which has spread from elsewhere to the liver, known as liver metastasis).

Lung Cancer Treatment

Lung cancer is a type of cancer that begins in the lungs. Your lungs are two spongy organs in your chest that take in oxygen when you inhale and release carbon dioxide when you exhale. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide.

Male Breast Cancer Treatment

Male breast cancer is a rare cancer that forms in the breast tissue of men. Though breast cancer is most commonly thought of as a disease that affects women, breast cancer does occur in men. Male breast cancer is most common in older men, though it can occur at any age.

Malignant Mesothelioma Treatment

Malignant mesothelioma is a cancer of the thin tissue (mesothelium) that lines the lung, chest wall, and abdomen. The major risk factor for mesothelioma is asbestos exposure. Explore the links on this page to learn more about malignant mesothelioma treatment and clinical trials.

Medulloblastoma Treatment

Medulloblastoma is the most common type of cancerous brain tumor in children. Medulloblastoma (muh-dul-o-blas-TOE-muh) is a cancerous (malignant) brain tumor that starts in the lower back part of the brain, called the cerebellum.

Medulloepithelioma Treatment

Medulloepithelioma is a rare, primitive, fast-growing brain tumour thought to stem from cells of the embryonic medullary cavity. Tumours originating in the ciliary body of the eye are referred to as embryonal medulloepitheliomas, or diktyomas.

Meningioma Treatment

A meningioma is a tumor that arises from the meninges — the membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord. Although not technically a brain tumor, it is included in this category because it may compress or squeeze the adjacent brain, nerves and vessels.

Microcystic Adnexal Carcinoma (MAC) Treatment

MICROCYSTIC adnexal carcinoma (MAC), or sclerosing sweat duct carcinoma, is an uncommon cutaneous malignant neoplasm that is associated with significant morbidity in light of its propensity for local invasion. As implied by its names, MAC exhibits small keratinizing cysts and well-defined ducts.

Mixed Glioma Treatment

Mixed gliomas (also called oligo-astrocytomas) are made up of more than one type of glial cell. Their diagnosis as a distinct tumor type is controversial and may be resolved with genetic screening of tumor tissue. These tumors are often found in the cerebrum and are most common in adult men.

Mohs Skin Cancer Surgery

Mohs surgery is a precise surgical technique used to treat skin cancer. During Mohs surgery, thin layers of cancer-containing skin are progressively removed and examined until only cancer-free tissue remains. Mohs surgery is also known as Mohs micrographic surgery.

Molecular Profiling

Molecular profiling—or “tumor genomic profiling”—is a form of testing that classifies tumors based on this genetic make-up to help diagnose and treat cancer. Using a blood test or biopsy, this testing examines the DNA of cancer cells, looking for genetic mutations that have been acquired by these cells.

Multiple Myeloma Treatment

Multiple myeloma, also known as myeloma, is a type of bone marrow cancer. Bone marrow is the spongy tissue at the centre of some bones that produces the body's blood cells. It's called multiple myeloma as the cancer often affects several areas of the body, such as the spine, skull, pelvis and ribs.

Myelodysplastic Syndromes Treatment

Myelodysplastic syndromes are a group of disorders caused by blood cells that are poorly formed or don't work properly. Myelodysplastic syndromes result from something amiss in the spongy material inside your bones where blood cells are made (bone marrow).

Nasopharyngeal Cancer Treatment

Nasopharyngeal cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the nasopharynx. Ethnic background and being exposed to the Epstein-Barr virus can affect the risk of nasopharyngeal cancer. Signs of nasopharyngeal cancer include trouble breathing, speaking, or hearing.

Neuroblastoma Treatment

Neuroblastoma is a cancer that develops from immature nerve cells found in several areas of the body. Neuroblastoma most commonly arises in and around the adrenal glands, which have similar origins to nerve cells and sit atop the kidneys.

Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas Treatment

Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is a type of cancer that begins in your lymphatic system, which is part of the body's germ-fighting immune system. In non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, white blood cells called lymphocytes grow abnormally and can form growths (tumors) throughout the body.

Oligodendroglioma Treatment

Oligodendroglioma is a tumor that can occur in the brain or spinal cord. Oligodendroglioma forms from oligodendrocytes — cells in the brain and spinal cord that produce a substance that protects nerve cells. Oligodendroglioma can occur at any age, but most often affects adults.

Oncology Consultation

Oncology is the study of cancer. An oncologist is a doctor who treats cancer and provides medical care for a person diagnosed with cancer. An oncologist may also be called a cancer specialist. The field of oncology has 3 major areas based on treatments: medical oncology, radiation oncology, and surgical oncology.

Oral Cancer Treatment

Mouth cancer, also known as oral cancer, is where a tumour develops in a part of the mouth. It may be on the surface of the tongue, the inside of the cheeks, the roof of the mouth (palate), the lips or gums.

Osteoblastoma Treatment

Osteoblastoma is a slow-growing tumor that dissolves normal, healthy bone and makes a new type of abnormal bone material called osteoid. This osteoid bone material builds up around normal bone. Because the osteoid bone is weaker than normal bone, the area surrounding the tumor becomes more vulnerable to fracture.

Osteosarcoma Treatment

Osteosarcoma is a type of bone cancer that begins in the cells that form bones. Osteosarcoma is most often found in the long bones — more often the legs, but sometimes the arms — but it can start in any bone. In very rare instances, it occurs in soft tissue outside the bone.

Ovarian Cancer Treatment

Ovarian cancer is a type of cancer that begins in the ovaries. The ovaries — each about the size of an almond — produce eggs (ova) as well as the hormones estrogen and progesterone. Ovarian cancer is a growth of cells that forms in the ovaries. The cells multiply quickly and can invade and destroy healthy body tissue.

Pancoast Tumor Treatment

A Pancoast tumor is a rare form of lung cancer. This type of tumor is located at the very top (apex) of the right or left lung. As the tumor grows, it can invade surrounding nerves, muscles, lymph nodes, connective tissue, upper ribs, and upper vertebrae. This causes severe pain in the shoulder and arm.

Pancreatic Cancer Treatment

Pancreatic cancer is cancer that forms in the cells of the pancreas. Pancreatic cancer begins in the tissues of your pancreas — an organ in your abdomen that lies behind the lower part of your stomach. Your pancreas releases enzymes that aid digestion and produces hormones that help manage your blood sugar.

Pancreatic Islet Cell Tumor Treatment

Pancreatic islet cell tumors are rare types of hormone-producing tumors that form in tissues of the pancreas. The cells of the pancreas cluster together in small groups, called islets, throughout the pancreas. When a tumor occurs in one of these clusters, it is called an islet cell tumor. It may be benign or cancerous.

Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity Cancer Treatment

Paranasal sinus and nasal cavity cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity. "Paranasal" means near the nose. The para sinuses are hollow, air-filled spaces in the bones around the nose.

Pediatric Oncology

A pediatric hematologist/oncologist is a physician who has special training and experience to diagnose and treat blood disorders and cancers in children, teens, and young adults.

Penile Cancer Treatment

Penile cancer is a rare cancer in the UK. It happens when abnormal penile cells grow in an uncontrolled way. It can develop anywhere on the penis but is most common under the foreskin in men who haven't been circumcised or on the head of the penis (the glans).

Pineoblastoma Treatment

Pineoblastoma is a type of cancerous (malignant) tumor that grows in a part of the brain known as the pineal gland. It occurs mainly in children. Symptoms of pineoblastoma include a buildup of fluid around the brain ( hydrocephalus ), headaches, nausea, and difficulty with eye movement.

Plasmacytoma Treatment

Plasmacytoma is a plasma cell dyscrasia in which a plasma cell tumour grows within soft tissue or within the axial skeleton. The International Myeloma Working Group lists three types: solitary plasmacytoma of bone (SPB); extramedullary plasmacytoma (EP), and multiple plasmacytomas that are either primary or recurrent.

Pleomorphic Xanthoastrocytoma Treatment

Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) and anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (APXA) are two types of very rare astrocytomas. They are primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors. This means they begin in the brain or spinal cord.

Primary Bone Cancer Treatment

Primary bone cancer is cancer that forms in cells of the bone. Some types of primary bone cancer are osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, and chondrosarcoma. Secondary bone cancer is cancer that spreads to the bone from another part of the body (such as the prostate, breast, or lung).

Prostate Cancer Treatment

Prostate cancer is cancer that occurs in the prostate. The prostate is a small walnut-shaped gland in males that produces the seminal fluid that nourishes and transports sperm. Prostate cancer is one of the most common types of cancer.

Proton Therapy

Proton therapy, also known as proton beam therapy, is a form of radiation treatment used to destroy tumor cells. Instead of using x-rays like regular radiation treatment, it uses protons to sends beams of high energy that can target tumors more precisely than X-ray radiation.

Radiosurgery Cancer Treatment

A type of external radiation therapy that uses special equipment to position the patient and precisely give a single large dose of radiation to a tumor. It is used to treat brain tumors and other brain disorders that cannot be treated by regular surgery.

Radiotherapy Consultation

Radiation therapy (also called radiotherapy) is a cancer treatment that uses high doses of radiation to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. At low doses, radiation is used in x-rays to see inside your body, as with x-rays of your teeth or broken bones.

Radiotherapy

Radiation therapy (also called radiotherapy) is a cancer treatment that uses high doses of radiation to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. At low doses, radiation is used in x-rays to see inside your body, as with x-rays of your teeth or broken bones.

Regional Chemotherapy

Refers to cancer that has grown beyond the original (primary) tumor to nearby lymph nodes or organs and tissues.

Retinoblastoma Treatment

Retinoblastoma is an eye cancer that begins in the retina — the sensitive lining on the inside of your eye. Retinoblastoma most commonly affects young children, but can rarely occur in adults. Your retina is made up of nerve tissue that senses light as it comes through the front of your eye.

Rhabdomyosarcoma Treatment

Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a rare type of cancer that forms in soft tissue — specifically skeletal muscle tissue or sometimes hollow organs such as the bladder or uterus. RMS can occur at any age, but it most often affects children.

Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment

Salivary gland cancer is a rare disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the salivary glands. Being exposed to certain types of radiation may increase the risk of salivary cancer. Signs of salivary gland cancer include a lump or trouble swallowing.

Schwannoma Treatment

Schwannoma is a rare type of tumor that forms in the nervous system. Schwannoma grows from cells called Schwann cells. Schwann cells protect and support the nerve cells of the nervous system. Schwannoma tumors are often benign, which means they are not cancer. But, in rare cases, they can become cancer.

Skin Cancer Treatment

Skin cancer — the abnormal growth of skin cells — most often develops on skin exposed to the sun. But this common form of cancer can also occur on areas of your skin not ordinarily exposed to sunlight. There are three major types of skin cancer — basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma.

Small Intestine Cancer Treatment

Small intestine cancer is a rare disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the small intestine. The small intestine is part of the body's digestive system, which also includes the esophagus, stomach, and large intestine.

Soft Tissue Sarcoma Treatment

Soft tissue sarcoma is a broad term for cancers that start in soft tissues (muscle, tendons, fat, lymph and blood vessels, and nerves). These cancers can develop anywhere in the body but are found mostly in the arms, legs, chest, and abdomen.

Spinal Cord Tumor Treatment

Spinal tumors or growths of any kind can lead to pain, neurological problems and sometimes paralysis. A spinal tumor can be life-threatening and cause permanent disability. Treatment for a spinal tumor may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy or other medications.

Stomach Cancer Treatment

Stomach cancer begins when cancer cells form in the inner lining of your stomach. These cells can grow into a tumor. Also called gastric cancer, the disease usually grows slowly over many years. Stomach cancer is most often seen in people in their late 60s through 80s.

Teratoma Treatment

A teratoma is a rare type of germ cell tumor that may contain immature or fully formed tissue, including teeth, hair, bone and muscle. Teratomas may be cancerous or noncancerous, and they can affect people of all ages. Treatment involves surgical removal.

Testicular Cancer Treatment

Testicular cancer is a disease that occurs when cancerous (malignant) cells develop in the tissues of a testicle. The development of cancerous cells in both testicles can occur, but is very rare. Testicular cancer is the most common cancer in men aged 20 to 35. The disease usually is curable.

Thymus Cancer Treatment

Thymoma and thymic carcinoma are diseases in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the thymus. Thymoma and thymic carcinoma, also called thymic epithelial tumors (TETs), are two types of rare cancers that can form in the cells that cover the outside surface of the thymus.

Thyroid Cancer Treatment

Thyroid cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the thyroid gland. Thyroid nodules are common but usually are not cancer. There are different types of thyroid cancer. Age, gender, and being exposed to radiation can affect the risk of thyroid cancer.

Treatment for Cancer of Unknown Primary (CUP)

Carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) is a rare disease in which malignant (cancer) cells are found in the body but the place the cancer began is not known. Cancer can form in any tissue of the body. The primary cancer (the cancer that first formed) can spread to other parts of the body.

Treatment for Paraneoplastic Syndromes

A paraneoplastic syndrome is a syndrome (a set of signs and symptoms) that is the consequence of a tumor in the body (usually a cancerous one), specifically due to the production of chemical signaling molecules (such as hormones or cytokines) by tumor cells or by an immune response against the tumor.

Treatment of Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors

Gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors form in the lining of the gastrointestinal tract, most often in the appendix, small intestine, or rectum. Gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors form from a certain type of neuroendocrine cell (a type of cell that is like a nerve cell and a hormone-making cell)

Treatment of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors

Gastrointestinal stromal tumor is a disease in which abnormal cells form in the tissues of the gastrointestinal tract. Genetic factors can increase the risk of having a gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Signs of gastrointestinal stromal tumors include blood in the stool or vomit.

Uterine Sarcoma Treatment

Uterine sarcoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the muscles of the uterus or other tissues that support the uterus. Past treatment with radiation therapy to the pelvis can increase the risk of uterine sarcoma. Signs of uterine sarcoma include abnormal bleeding.

Vaginal Cancer Treatment

Vaginal cancer is a very rare cancer that's found anywhere in the vagina. The vagina is a tube between the vulva and the opening of the womb (cervix). Vaginal cancer is nearly always caused by an infection from certain types of the human papillomavirus (HPV).

Vulvar Cancer Treatment

Vulvar cancer is a type of cancer that occurs on the outer surface area of the female genitalia. The vulva is the area of skin that surrounds the urethra and vagina, including the clitoris and labia. Vulvar cancer commonly forms as a lump or sore on the vulva that often causes itching.

Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia Treatment

Waldenström macroglobulinemia is a rare blood cell cancer characterized by an excess of abnormal white blood cells in the bone marrow. These abnormal cells have characteristics of both white blood cells (lymphocytes ) called B cells and more mature cells derived from B cells known as plasma cells.

Whipple Procedure

A Whipple procedure — also known as a pancreaticoduodenectomy — is a complex operation to remove the head of the pancreas, the first part of the small intestine (duodenum), the gallbladder and the bile duct. The Whipple procedure is used to treat tumors and other disorders of the pancreas, intestine and bile duct.

Wilms' Tumor Treatment

Wilms tumor is a type of childhood cancer that starts in the kidneys. It is the most common type of kidney cancer in children. About 9 of 10 kidney cancers in children are Wilms tumors.
Cardiology
Cardiology 90 Services

24 Hour Blood Pressure Monitoring

24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is a method to measure blood pressure on a continuous basis. Your BP is measured even as you sleep. The ongoing data helps your doctor get a more accurate picture of your blood pressure numbers.

Acute Decompensated Heart Failure Treatment

Early intravenous vasodilator therapy with an agent that lowers arterial tone (eg, nitroprusside) is suggested in selected patients with ADHF who require a rapid decrease in systemic vascular resistance and LV afterload (eg, those with severe hypertension, acute mitral regurgitation, or acute aortic regurgitation).

Angina Pectoris Treatment

Nitrates or beta blockers are usually recommended first for people with stable angina. Calcium channel blockers are an alternative if there are side effects or other conditions that limit the use of beta blockers and nitrates.

Aortic Stenosis Treatment

Aortic valve replacement is often needed to treat aortic valve stenosis. In aortic valve replacement, your surgeon removes the damaged valve and replaces it with a mechanical valve or a valve made from cow, pig or human heart tissue (biological tissue valve).

Aortic Valve Repair

An aortic valve replacement is a major operation and occasionally the complications can be fatal. Overall, the risk of dying as a result of the procedure is estimated to be 2%. But this risk is far lower than the risk associated with leaving severe aortic disease untreated.

Aortopulmonary Window Repair

Surgery is performed with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass. An incision can be made into the anterior aspect of the aorta, the main pulmonary artery, or the aortopulmonary window itself. Associated lesions are usually repaired during the same surgery.

Atherosclerosis Treatment

Lifestyle changes, such as eating a healthy diet and exercising, are the first treatment for atherosclerosis — and may be all that you need to treat your atherosclerosis.

Atrial Septal Defect (ASD) Closure

ASD closure is a procedure to close an atrial septal defect (ASD) or hole in your heart. An atrial septal defect (ASD) is an abnormal opening in the wall (septum) between your heart's two upper chambers (atria). Every baby is born with a small opening there. The hole usually closes a few weeks or months after birth.

Atrioventricular Fistula Treatment

Can a dural arteriovenous fistula be cured? Yes, the most common means of treating—and curing—a DAVF is through endovascular embolization. Open brain surgery rarely is required to treat a DAVF.

Atrioventricular Septal Defect (AVSD) Treatment

Open-heart surgery is the mainstay of treatment for children with AVSD. The repair involves placement of one or two patches to divide the common valve into right and left sides and close the holes. This is performed after beginning heart/lung bypass to support the circulation during the repair itself.

Balloon Mitral Valvuloplasty

In balloon valvuloplasty, a catheter is inserted in the heart and guided to the narrowed valve. The balloon is then inflated, which expands the opening of the valve. Valvuloplasty is done in the hospital, usually while you're awake. A medication called a sedative may be used to help you relax

Balloon Pulmonary Valvuloplasty

Balloon valvuloplasty aims to fix the pulmonary valve. The procedure uses a long, thin tube called a catheter. This tube has an inflatable balloon at its tip. The healthcare provider puts this catheter through a blood vessel in the groin and threads it all the way to the pulmonary valve.

Bentall Procedure

The Bentall procedure is a surgery to replace part of the aorta and the aortic valve of the heart because of a bulge (aneurysm) in the aorta. The aorta is the large blood vessel (artery) that carries blood from the heart through the chest and belly to the rest of the body.

Blalock–Taussig Shunt (BT Shunt)

The Blalock–Thomas–Taussig shunt is a surgical procedure used to increase blood flow to the lungs in some forms of congenital heart disease. These conditions, in which a child is born with an abnormal heart include pulmonary atresia and Tetralogy of Fallot and are common causes of blue baby syndrome.

Cardiac Amyloidosis Treatment

Some of the common types of chemotherapy used to treat amyloidosis are cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan, Neosar) and melphalan (Alkeran) combined with the steroids dexamethasone (multiple brand names) and prednisone (multiple brand names).

Cardiac Assessment

A focused assessment of the cardiac system includes a review for common or concerning symptoms: Chest pain—assess location, when it occurs, intensity, type, duration, with or without exertion, radiation, associated symptoms (shortness of breath, sweating, nausea, palpitations, anxiety), and alleviating factors.

Cardiac Asthma Treatment

The treatments for cardiac asthma depend on the cause (such as heart failure or leaky valve) but may include heart medicines to control blood pressure and remove excess fluid, proper diet, and modified daily activities. If the cause is a leaky valve or congenital heart defect, over time, surgery may be needed.

Cardiac CT

A computerized tomography (CT) coronary angiogram is an imaging test that looks at the arteries that supply blood to your heart. It might be done to diagnose the cause of chest pain or other symptoms. A CT coronary angiogram uses a powerful X-ray machine to produce images of your heart and its blood vessels.

Cardiac MRI

Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to produce detailed pictures of the structures within and around the heart. Doctors use cardiac MRI to detect or monitor cardiac disease.

Cardiac Rehabilitation

Cardiac rehab, or cardiac rehabilitation, is a medically supervised program that includes exercise, support, counseling and education. This comprehensive program helps you recover from a heart attack or other heart problem. It offers many benefits that can improve your health and quality of life.

Cardiac Resynchronisation Therapy (CRT) Device Implantation

Cardiac resynchronization therapy requires a minor surgical procedure to implant a device in the chest. You'll likely be awake during the procedure, but will receive medication to help you relax. The area where the pacemaker is implanted is numbed. The procedure typically takes a few hours.

Cardiology Consultation

Cardiovascular consultation is the most important aspect of medical treatment. It is an opportunity for patients to discuss about their cardiac problems, current complaints, understand the risks and complications, and to adopt healthy lifestyle habits.

Cardiothoracic Surgery

Cardiothoracic surgery is the field of medicine involved in surgical treatment of organs inside the thoracic cavity — generally treatment of conditions of the heart (heart disease), lungs (lung disease), and other pleural or mediastinal structures.

Cardioversion

Cardioversion is a medical procedure that restores a normal heart rhythm in people with certain types of abnormal heartbeats (arrhythmias). Cardioversion is usually done by sending electric shocks to your heart through electrodes placed on your chest. It's also possible to do cardioversion with medications.

Coronary Angiogram

A coronary angiogram is a procedure that uses X-ray imaging to see your heart's blood vessels. The test is generally done to see if there's a restriction in blood flow going to the heart. Coronary angiograms are part of a general group of procedures known as heart (cardiac) catheterizations.

Coronary Angiography and Left Ventriculography

Coronary angiography, also known as cardiac catheterisation, is a procedure performed to visualise the coronary arteries which are blood vessels that supply blood to the heart. It is the gold standard to diagnose coronary artery disease.

Coronary Angioplasty

A coronary angioplasty is a procedure used to widen blocked or narrowed coronary arteries (the main blood vessels supplying the heart). The term "angioplasty" means using a balloon to stretch open a narrowed or blocked artery.

Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) Surgery

A coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) is a surgical procedure used to treat coronary heart disease. It diverts blood around narrowed or clogged parts of the major arteries to improve blood flow and oxygen supply to the heart.

Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) Treatment

Coronary artery disease (CAD) causes impaired blood flow in the arteries that supply blood to the heart. Also called coronary heart disease (CHD), CAD is the most common form of heart disease and affects approximately 16.5 millionTrusted Source Americans over the age of 20

Coronary Steal Treatment

Coronary artery disease (CAD) causes impaired blood flow in the arteries that supply blood to the heart. Also called coronary heart disease (CHD), CAD is the most common form of heart disease and affects approximately 16.5 millionTrusted Source Americans over the age of 20

Coxsackievirus-Induced Cardiomyopathy Treatment

Treatment. A wide variety of treatment modalities are currently recommended including Immunosuppressive agents, intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG), and antiviral agents although the effectiveness of these treatments are not well established and no specific treatment is available.

Cryoablation for Atrial Fibrillation

Doctors perform cryoablation to restore normal heart rhythm by disabling heart cells that create an irregular heartbeat. During this minimally invasive procedure, a thin flexible tube called a balloon catheter is used to locate and freeze the heart tissue that triggers an irregular heartbeat.

Diastolic Heart Failure Treatment

The pharmacologic therapies of choice for diastolic heart failure are angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, diuretics, and beta blockers.

Dobutamine Stress Echocardiogram

A dobutamine stress echocardiogram (DSE) may be used if you are unable to exercise. Dobutamine is put in a vein and causes the heart to beat faster. It mimics the effects of exercise on the heart. During an echo, a transducer (like a microphone) sends out ultrasonic sound waves at a frequency too high to be heard.

Dressler's Syndrome Treatment

The main treatment for Dressler syndrome is medication to reduce inflammation. Your doctor may recommend nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as: Aspirin. Ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others)

Duroziez's Disease Treatment

Duroziez's sign is a sign of aortic insufficiency. It consists of an audible diastolic murmur which can be heard over the femoral artery when it is compressed with the bell of a stethoscope.

Echocardiogram

An echocardiogram, or "echo", is a scan used to look at the heart and nearby blood vessels. It's a type of ultrasound scan, which means a small probe is used to send out high-frequency sound waves that create echoes when they bounce off different parts of the body.

Eisenmenger's Syndrome Treatment

Sildenafil (Revatio, Viagra) and tadalafil (Cialis, Adcirca) are sometimes used to treat high blood pressure in your pulmonary arteries caused by Eisenmenger syndrome. These drugs work by opening the blood vessels in the lungs to allow blood to flow through more easily.

Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG)

An electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) records the electrical signal from the heart to check for different heart conditions. Electrodes are placed on the chest to record the heart's electrical signals, which cause the heart to beat. The signals are shown as waves on an attached computer monitor or printer.

Electrophysiology Study (EPS)

An electrophysiology (EP) study — also called invasive cardiac electrophysiology — is a series of tests that examine the heart's electrical activity. The heart's electrical system produces signals (impulses) that control the timing of the heartbeats.

Endocardial Fibroelastosis (EFE) Treatment

There is no specific cure for endocardial fibroelastosis. Treatment is largely tailored around symptoms. Management commonly revolves around chronic cardiac failure with diuretics, digoxin, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, and beta-blockers. Early and long-term treatment with digoxin has been suggested.

Endocarditis Treatment

Endocarditis is treated with a course of antibiotics given via a drip. You'll need to be admitted to hospital for this. Some people also need surgery to repair or replace a damaged heart valve or drain away any abscesses that develop. Endocarditis is a serious illness, especially if complications develop.

Endomyocardial Biopsy (EMB)

Endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) is an invasive procedure used routinely to obtain small samples of heart muscle, primarily for detecting rejection of a donor heart following heart transplantation. It is also used as a diagnostic tool in some heart diseases.

Fontan Procedure

During a Fontan surgery, congenital heart surgeons reroute the blood flow from the lower body to the lungs by connecting the inferior vena cava to the pulmonary artery. To accomplish this, surgeons will most often create a connecting channel, or tube, outside of the heart.

Giant Cell Myocarditis Treatment

Giant-cell myocarditis often escapes diagnosis until autopsy or transplantation and has defied proper treatment trials for its rarity and deadly behavior. Current therapy rests on multiple-drug immunosuppression but its prognostic influence remains poorly known.Nov

Glenn Shunt

Glenn shunt procedures involve the anastomosis of the superior vena cava to the right pulmonary artery to increase pulmonary blood flow in patients with cyanotic heart disease.

Health Screening

Screenings are medical tests that doctors use to check for diseases and health conditions before there are any signs or symptoms. Screenings help find problems early on, when they may be easier to treat. Getting recommended screenings is one of the most important things you can do for your health.

Heart Arrhythmia - Catheter Ablation

Catheter ablation is a way to treat irregular heartbeats, or arrhythmias, like atrial fibrillation (AFib), atrial flutter, or supraventricular tachycardia (SVT). It destroys the tissue that's causing your heartbeat to get off course. This creates scar tissue inside your heart.

Heart Biopsy

A myocardial biopsy, also called a heart biopsy, is an invasive procedure that involves using a bioptome (a small catheter with a grasping device on the end) to obtain a small piece of heart muscle tissue that is sent to a laboratory for analysis.

Heart Surgery

Open-heart surgery (also called traditional heart surgery) is when the surgeon cuts the chest open to reach the heart. Because it's difficult to operate on a beating heart, medicines are used to stop the heart. A heart-lung bypass machine keeps oxygen-rich blood pumping through the body during the surgery.

Heart Tumor Treatment

A single small noncancerous primary heart tumor can be surgically removed, usually resulting in a cure. If a large noncancerous primary tumor is significantly reducing blood flow through the heart, removal of the part of the tumor that does not grow into the heart wall may improve heart function.

Heart Valve Replacement

To replace a heart valve, your doctor removes the heart valve and replaces it with a mechanical valve or a valve made from cow, pig or human heart tissue (biological tissue valve). Biological valves often eventually need to be replaced, as they break down over time.

High Output Heart Failure Treatment

High-output heart failure is a heart condition that occurs when the cardiac output is higher than normal due to increased peripheral demand. There is a circulatory overload which may lead to pulmonary edema secondary to an elevated diastolic pressure in the left ventricle.

Hypertension Treatment

Hypertension is another name for high blood pressure. It can lead to severe health complications and increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and sometimes death. Blood pressure is the force that a person's blood exerts against the walls of their blood vessels.

Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD) Implantation

An implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) is a small battery-powered device placed in the chest to detect and stop irregular heartbeats (arrhythmias). An ICD continuously monitors the heartbeat and delivers electric shocks, when needed, to restore a regular heart rhythm.

Intra-Aortic Balloon Pump Insertion

IABP therapy involves inserting the balloon-tipped catheter into a blood vessel and advancing it to the heart. Usually, this happens during a heart-related surgery. In an emergency, a medical team may insert it at your bedside.

Keshan Disease Treatment

Keshan disease is an endemic cardiomyopathy with high mortality rates. It is most prevalent in low income, rural regions of China and in areas with selenium-deficient soil. The condition can cause acute or congestive heart failure, a thinning heart wall, and cardiac arrhythmia, among other health issues.

Left Heart Catheterization

Left heart catheterization is the passage of a thin flexible tube (catheter) into the left side of the heart. It is done to diagnose or treat certain heart problems.

Left Ventricular Assist Device (LVAD) Implantation

A left ventricular assist device (LVAD) is implanted in your chest. It helps pump blood from the lower left heart chamber (left ventricle) to the rest of your body. A control unit and battery pack are worn outside your body and are connected to the LVAD through a small opening (port) in your skin.

Minimally Invasive Direct Coronary Artery Bypass (MIDCAB)

Minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass (MIDCAB) grafting attempts to achieve adequate coronary artery revascularization in a less invasive manner than conventional coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).

Mitral Valve Repair

Mitral valve repair and mitral valve replacement are types of surgery to fix or replace a leaky or stiff mitral valve in the heart.

Myocardial Bridge Treatment

A myocardial bridge is a usually harmless condition in which one or more of the coronary arteries goes through the heart muscle instead of lying on its surface. Most bridges don't seem to cause symptoms. However, some people with myocardial bridges can experience angina, or chest pain.

Myocardial Infarction Treatment

Heart Attack (Myocardial Infarction) A heart attack (medically known as a myocardial infarction) is a deadly medical emergency where your heart muscle begins to die because it isn't getting enough blood flow. This is usually caused by a blockage in the arteries that supply blood to your heart.

Myocardial Perfusion Imaging (MPI)

Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is a non-invasive imaging test that shows how well blood flows through (perfuses) your heart muscle.

Myocardial Viability Testing

Purpose. Positron emission tomography (PET) viability imaging is used to assess how much heart muscle has been damaged by a heart attack or heart disease. This test is used to determine whether a patient may need angiography, cardiac bypass surgery, heart transplant or other procedures.

Myocarditis Treatment

A rare condition in which the heart muscle becomes thick and inflamed and may also become weak. Myocarditis is usually caused by a viral infection, but it may also be caused by bacterial, parasitic, or fungal infections; autoimmune disorders; or being exposed to radiation or certain chemicals or drugs.

Pacemaker Implantation

A pacemaker insertion is the implantation of a small electronic device that is usually placed in the chest (just below the collarbone) to help regulate slow electrical problems with the heart. A pacemaker may be recommended toensure that the heartbeat does not slow to a dangerously low rate.

Pancarditis Treatment

Pancarditis, also called perimyoendocarditis, is the inflammation of the entire heart: the pericardium, the myocardium and the endocardium. Reflux carditis refers to a possible outcome of esophageal reflux (also known as GERD), and involves inflammation of the esophagus/stomach mucosa.

Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) Closure

Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a persistent opening between the two major blood vessels leading from the heart. The opening (ductus arteriosus) is a normal part of a baby's circulatory system in the womb that usually closes shortly after birth. If it remains open, it's called a patent ductus arteriosus.

Pericardiocentesis

Pericardiocentesis is a procedure done to remove fluid that has built up in the sac around the heart (pericardium). It's done using a needle and small catheter to drain excess fluid.

Preoperative Evaluation

Preoperative evaluation means an assessment of cardiac risk. The goal of perioperative cardiac risk assessment is to identify those patients with unstable cardiac disease for whom further study and treatment warrants the risk of surgical delay.

Pulmonary Artery Catheter Insertion

Pulmonary artery catheterization uses a catheter that has an inflatable balloon at its tip. The healthcare provider puts this tube through a large vein. The tube is then moved to the right atrium, one of the heart's upper chambers. It is then moved on through the right ventricle and out through a pulmonary artery.

Rastelli Procedure

The Rastelli procedure is a surgery used to correct congenital heart defects such as, double outlet right ventricle (DORV) and truncus arteriosus. It can also be combined with the modified Norwood procedure to correct aortic atresia with a ventricular septal defect (VSD).

Renal Denervation Therapy

Renal denervation therapy (RDT) is a relatively new, catheterization-based intervention to treat patients with refractory hypertension. The rationale of RDT is the mechanical destruction with high frequency ablation of renal sympathetic fibers, which can be easily accessed via the renal artery.

Right Heart Catheterization

In a right-heart cath, your doctor guides a special catheter (a small, hollow tube) called a pulmonary artery (PA) catheter to the right side of your heart. He or she then passes the tube into your pulmonary artery. This is the main artery that carries blood to your lungs.

Roemheld Syndrome Treatment

Roemheld syndrome (RS), or gastrocardiac syndrome, or gastric cardiac syndrome or Roemheld-Techlenburg-Ceconi-Syndrome or gastric-cardia, was a medical syndrome first coined by Ludwig von Roemheld (1871–1938) describing a cluster of cardiovascular symptoms stimulated by gastrointestinal changes.

Shone's Syndrome Treatment

Shone's complex is a congenital (present at birth) heart disease. It affects how blood flows both into and out of the left side of the heart. The multiple sites of blockage in the blood flow through the left side of the heart differentiates Shone's syndrome from other isolated heart defects.

Stress Electrocardiography (ECG)

The exercise stress test -- also known as an exercise electrocardiogram, treadmill test, graded exercise test, or stress EKG -- is used most often. It lets your doctor know how your heart responds to being pushed. You'll walk on a treadmill or pedal a stationary bike. It'll get more difficult as you go.

Surgery for Coarctation of the Aorta

During surgery to correct a coarctation, the narrow portion is removed and the aorta is reconstructed or patched to allow blood to flow normally through the aorta. Even after surgery, children with a coarctation of the aorta often have high blood pressure that is treated with medicine.

Surgery for Ebstein's Anomaly

Several types of procedures can be used to surgically treat Ebstein anomaly and associated defects. Tricuspid valve repair. Surgeons reduce the size of the valve opening and allow the valve leaflets to come together to work properly. A band might be placed around the valve to keep it in place.

Surgery for Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome

Soon after a baby with hypoplastic left heart syndrome is born, multiple surgeries done in a particular order are needed to increase blood flow to the body and bypass the poorly functioning left side of the heart. The right ventricle becomes the main pumping chamber to the body.

Surgery for Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)

Surgery for tetralogy of Fallot involves open-heart surgery to correct the defects (intracardiac repair) or a temporary procedure that uses a shunt. Most babies and older children have intracardiac repair.

Temporary Pacemaker

Temporary cardiac pacing is an intervention that helps the heartbeat get back to a normal pace if it has been temporarily out of rhythm. In temporary cardiac pacing, wires are inserted through the chest (during heart surgery), or a large vein in the groin or neck, and are directly connected to the heart.

Tilt Table Test

In a tilt table test, you lie on a table that adjusts your body position from horizontal to vertical to simulate standing up. The test can tell your doctor if faulty brain signals are causing low blood pressure. A tilt table test is used to evaluate the cause of unexplained fainting.

Transcoronary Ablation of Septal Hypertrophy (TASH)

TASH is a new, investigational, catheter-based treatment for severely symptomatic, medically refractory hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy.

Treatment for Myocardial Rupture

Myocardial rupture is a laceration of the ventricles or atria of the heart, of the interatrial or interventricular septum, or of the papillary muscles. It is most commonly seen as a serious sequela of an acute myocardial infarction (heart attack). It can also be caused by trauma.

Tricuspid Valve (TV) Repair

Tricuspid valve repair is an open-heart procedure. Your surgeon may reshape the valve, or repair or separate fused valve leaflets. The operation can be done through a small incision on the side of the chest.

Ultrafast CT Scan (Computed Tomography)

An ultrafast computed tomography (CT) scan is also called electron beam CT scan. It's an imaging test that uses X-rays and a computer to look at your heart. The scan takes pictures very quickly.

Ventricular Aneurysm Treatment

A ventricular aneurysm is a defect in the left (or right) ventricle of the heart, usually produced by transmural infarction.

Ventriculography

A ventriculogram is a test that shows images of your heart. The images show how well your heart is pumping. The pictures let your doctor check the health of the lower chambers of your heart, called ventricles. This test can be done as a non-invasive test or as part of an invasive procedure.
General Surgery
General Surgery 30 Services

Adrenalectomy

An adrenalectomy (uh-dree-nul-EK-tuh-me) is surgery to remove one or both adrenal glands. One adrenal gland sits above each of your kidneys. Your two adrenal glands produce various hormones that help regulate your metabolism, immune system, blood pressure, blood sugar and other essential functions.

After Surgery Care

After any operation, you'll have some side effects. There is usually some pain with surgery. There may also be swelling and soreness around the area that the surgeon cut. Your surgeon can tell you which side effects to expect.

Appendectomy

An appendectomy is surgery to remove the appendix when it is infected. This condition is called appendicitis. Appendectomy is a common emergency surgery. The appendix is a thin pouch that is attached to the large intestine. It sits in the lower right part of your belly.

Breast Abscess Drainage

Treatment for a breast abscess involves draining the area of pus. First, your doctor will numb your skin with a local anesthetic so you don't feel any pain. Then, they'll remove the pus by either making a small incision and physically draining the abscess, or by removing the pus via a needle.

Breast Lumpectomy

Lumpectomy is a surgical removal of a discrete portion or "lump" of breast tissue, usually in the treatment of a malignant tumor or breast cancer.

Breast Tumor Removal

Lumpectomy (lum-PEK-tuh-me) is surgery to remove cancer or other abnormal tissue from your breast. During a lumpectomy procedure, the surgeon removes the cancer or other abnormal tissue and a small amount of the healthy tissue that surrounds it. This ensures that all of the abnormal tissue is removed.

Cervical Sympathectomy

A cervical sympathectomy is surgery to destroy or remove nerves in your neck. The surgery is mainly used to treat hyperhidrosis (heavy sweating) in the armpits or on the hands.

Cyst Removal

The removal of a cyst refers to any procedure used to remove an abnormal soft tissue growth or pocket of fluid that forms in various parts of the body. There are several types of cyst removal procedures performed depending on the type of cyst, its size, and its location.

Diagnostic Laparoscopy

Diagnostic laparoscopy is a procedure that allows a doctor to look directly at the contents of the abdomen or pelvis.

Gastrectomy

Gastrectomy is surgery to remove part or all of the stomach. If only part of the stomach is removed, it is called partial gastrectomy. If the whole stomach is removed, it is called total gastrectomy.

General Surgery Consultation

Surgery consultation, which is an essential part of any surgical procedure, involves making an assessment as to whether the patient is fit to undergo surgery and if the benefits of the procedure outweigh the risk.

Hernia Repair

Open hernia repair is where an incision, or cut, is made in the groin. The hernia “sac” containing the bulging intestine is identified. The surgeon then pushes the hernia back into the abdomen and strengthens the abdominal wall with stitches or synthetic mesh.

Hiatal Hernia Surgery

Surgery to repair a hiatal hernia may involve pulling your stomach down into your abdomen and making the opening in your diaphragm smaller or reconstructing an esophageal sphincter. In some cases, hiatal hernia surgery is combined with weight-loss surgery, such as a sleeve gastrectomy.

Incisional Hernia Repair

In this surgical procedure, also known as herniorrhaphy, the surgeon makes an incision in the abdomen above the hernia, pushes any protruding intestine back into the abdomen and repairs the opening in the muscle wall.

Laparoscopy

Laparoscopy is a type of surgical procedure that allows a surgeon to access the inside of the abdomen (tummy) and pelvis without having to make large incisions in the skin. This procedure is also known as keyhole surgery or minimally invasive surgery.

Laparotomy

A laparotomy is a surgical incision into the abdominal cavity. A laparotomy is performed to examine the abdominal organs and aid diagnosis of any problems. Possible complications include infection and the formation of scar tissue within the abdominal cavity.

Lipoma Removal

Most lipomas are removed surgically by cutting them out. Recurrences after removal are uncommon. Possible side effects are scarring and bruising. A technique known as minimal excision extraction may result in less scarring. Liposuction.

Liver Resection

Liver resection is the removal of part of the liver during an operation. The body can cope with removal of up to two-thirds of the liver. The liver also has the ability to grow back. Within 3 months of your operation, the remainder of your liver will have grown back to near normal size.

Lymph Node Biopsy

A lymph node biopsy is the removal of lymph node tissue for examination under a microscope. The lymph nodes are small glands that make white blood cells (lymphocytes), which fight infection. Lymph nodes may trap the germs that are causing an infection. Cancer can spread to lymph nodes.

Lymph Nodes Removal

Lymph node removal is a surgical procedure to take out one or more of your lymph nodes. Your doctor may recommend you have this procedure if you've been diagnosed with cancer. There are two main reasons for removing lymph nodes. If you have cancer, one or more lymph nodes may be removed to check whether it has spread.

Mastectomy

A mastectomy is an operation to remove a breast. It's used to treat breast cancer in women and breast cancer in men. The operation takes about 90 minutes, and most people go home the following day.

Nephrectomy

Kidney removal, or nephrectomy, is surgery to remove all or part of a kidney. It may involve: Part of one kidney removed (partial nephrectomy). All of one kidney removed (simple nephrectomy). Removal of one entire kidney, surrounding fat, and the adrenal gland (radical nephrectomy).

Omentectomy

The benefit of an omentectomy is to remove cancer if it's spread to the omentum or to help stage the cancer to determine the most beneficial treatment. Cancer surgeries, such as an omentectomy, can cause side effects including temporary tenderness or pain.

Pleurodesis

Pleurodesis is a procedure that sticks your lung to your chest wall. This procedure removes the space between your lung and your chest wall (pleural space) so that fluid or air no longer builds up between the layers.

Robotic Surgery

Robotic surgery, or robot-assisted surgery, allows doctors to perform many types of complex procedures with more precision, flexibility and control than is possible with conventional techniques. Robotic surgery is usually associated with minimally invasive surgery — procedures performed through tiny incisions.

Splenectomy

A splenectomy is surgery to remove the entire spleen, a delicate, fist-sized organ that sits under the left rib cage near the stomach. The spleen is an important part of the body's defense (immune) system. It contains special white blood cells that destroy bacteria and help the body fight infections when you are sick.

Stereotactic Radiosurgery

Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is a non-surgical radiation therapy used to treat functional abnormalities and small tumors of the brain. It can deliver precisely-targeted radiation in fewer high-dose treatments than traditional therapy, which can help preserve healthy tissue.

Thoracostomy

Thoracostomy is a minimally invasive procedure in which a doctor inserts a thin plastic tube into the pleural space — the area between the chest wall and lungs. They may attach the tube to a suction device to remove excess fluid or air. Or, they may use the chest tube to deliver medications into the pleural space.

Tracheostomy

A tracheostomy is an opening created at the front of the neck so a tube can be inserted into the windpipe (trachea) to help you breathe. If necessary, the tube can be connected to an oxygen supply and a breathing machine called a ventilator.

Umbilical Hernia Repair

During umbilical hernia repair, the surgeon makes a small cut of about 2 to 3cm at the base of the belly button and pushes the fatty lump or loop of bowel back into the tummy. The muscle layers at the weak spot in the abdominal wall where the hernia came through are stitched together to strengthen them.
Gastroenterology
Gastroenterology 46 Services

Bile Duct Cancer Surgery

Intrahepatic bile duct cancers are in bile ducts that are inside the liver. To treat these cancers, the surgeon cuts out the part of the liver containing the cancer. Removing part of the liver is called a partial hepatectomy. Sometimes this means that a whole lobe (right or left part) of the liver must be removed.

Cholecystectomy

A cholecystectomy (koh-luh-sis-TEK-tuh-me) is a surgical procedure to remove your gallbladder — a pear-shaped organ that sits just below your liver on the upper right side of your abdomen. Your gallbladder collects and stores bile — a digestive fluid produced in your liver.

Choledochotomy

Surgical incision of the common bile duct Patients with clonorchiasis are usually asymptomatic and treatment is limited to complications. Treatment consists of cholecystectomy, choledochotomy, and T-tube drainage.

Colonoscopy

A colonoscopy (koe-lun-OS-kuh-pee) is an exam used to detect changes or abnormalities in the large intestine (colon) and rectum. During a colonoscopy, a long, flexible tube (colonoscope) is inserted into the rectum. A tiny video camera at the tip of the tube allows the doctor to view the inside of the entire colon.

Colostomy

A colostomy is an operation to divert 1 end of the colon (part of the bowel) through an opening in the tummy. The opening is called a stoma. A pouch can be placed over the stoma to collect your poo (stools). A colostomy can be permanent or temporary.

Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, or (ERCP), is a procedure to diagnose and treat problems in the liver, gallbladder, bile ducts, and pancreas. It combines X-ray and the use of an endoscope—a long, flexible, lighted tube.

Endoscopic Ultrasound (EUS)

Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is a minimally invasive procedure to assess digestive (gastrointestinal) and lung diseases. A special endoscope uses high-frequency sound waves to produce detailed images of the lining and walls of your digestive tract and chest, nearby organs such as the pancreas and liver, and lymph nodes.

Endoscopy

Vestibular rehabilitation is an exercise-based program, designed by a specialty-trained vestibular physical therapist, to improve balance and reduce problems related to dizziness.

Esophageal Cancer Surgery

One operation used to treat esophageal cancer is esophagectomy. During esophagectomy, your surgeon removes the portion of your esophagus that contains the tumor, along with a portion of the upper part of your stomach, and nearby lymph nodes. The remaining esophagus is reconnected to your stomach.

Esophageal Diverticula Surgery

Endoscopic diverticulotomy (Dohlman procedure): This procedure divides the septum between the cervical esophagus and the diverticular pouch. By dividing the septum, food can freely drain from the pouch to the esophagus.

Esophageal Manometry

Esophageal manometry (muh-NOM-uh-tree) is a test that shows whether your esophagus is working properly. The esophagus is a long, muscular tube that connects your throat to your stomach. When you swallow, your esophagus contracts and pushes food into your stomach. Esophageal manometry measures the contractions.

Esophageal pH Monitoring

Esophageal pH monitoring is a test that measures how often stomach acid enters the tube that leads from the mouth to the stomach (called the esophagus). The test also measures how long the acid stays there.

Esophagoscopy

Esophagoscopy is a medical procedure that allows your doctor to look inside your esophagus. This procedure helps your doctor diagnose conditions that affect your esophagus. It is done using an endoscope or esophagoscope, which is a thin tube with an attached light and camera.

Gallstones Treatment

Gallstones are hardened deposits of bile that can form in your gallbladder. Bile is a digestive fluid produced in your liver and stored in your gallbladder. When you eat, your gallbladder contracts and empties bile into your small intestine (duodenum).

Gastroenterology Consultation

A gastroenterology consultation is an in-depth one-to-one meeting between you and a gastroenterologist. We ask you to describe your issue in depth, and ask you questions. We traditionally do a physical examination, and then based on our assessment make recommendations for testing and treatment.

Gastroenterostomy

A gastroenterostomy is the surgical creation of a connection between the stomach and the jejunum. The operation can sometimes be performed at the same time as a partial gastrectomy (the removal of part of the stomach).

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) Treatment

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) occurs when stomach acid frequently flows back into the tube connecting your mouth and stomach (esophagus). This backwash (acid reflux) can irritate the lining of your esophagus. Many people experience acid reflux from time to time.

Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract Biopsy

Upper GI endoscopy is a test that looks inside your upper GI (gastrointestinal) tract. This includes your food pipe (esophagus), stomach, and duodenum (the first part of your small intestine). The test is also known as EGD (esophagogastroduodenoscopy).

Gastrointestinal Perforation Repair

Treatment most often involves emergency surgery to repair the hole. Sometimes, a small part of the intestine must be removed. One end of the intestine may be brought out through an opening (stoma) made in the abdominal wall. This is called a colostomy or ileostomy.

Gastroscopy

A gastroscopy is a test to check inside your throat, food pipe (oesophagus) and stomach, known as the upper part of your digestive system. This test can help find what's causing your symptoms.

Gastrostomy

A gastrostomy is a surgical procedure used to insert a tube, often referred to as a "G-tube", through the abdomen and into the stomach. Gastrostomy is used to provide a route for tube feeding if needed for four weeks or longer, and/or to vent the stomach for air or drainage.

Heller Myotomy

Heller myotomy is a surgical procedure in which the muscles of the cardia (lower esophageal sphincter or LES) are cut, allowing food and liquids to pass to the stomach.

Hepatology Consultation

Your hepatologist will inquire about your medical history, ask you detailed questions about the symptoms you have been experiencing and any previous treatments you had for them. You should also answers questions about your lifestyle such as your diet, your exercise regimen and alcohol and drug intake.

Intra-Abdominal Adhesions Surgery

Abdominal adhesions are scar tissue that forms between abdominal tissues and organs that causes your tissues and organs to stick together. Surgery of the abdomen is the main cause of this scar tissue. You usually won't need treatment.

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Treatment

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common condition that affects the digestive system. It causes symptoms like stomach cramps, bloating, diarrhoea and constipation. These tend to come and go over time, and can last for days, weeks or months at a time. It's usually a lifelong problem

Laparoscopic Anti-Reflux (GERD) Surgery

A Nissen fundoplication is a surgery to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). During the procedure, a surgeon creates a sphincter (tightening muscle) at the bottom of the esophagus to prevent acid reflux. Most people notice a significant decrease in acid reflux symptoms after the surgery.

Liver Biopsy

A liver biopsy is a test used to diagnose liver conditions. Tissue samples are removed from your liver and checked under a microscope for signs of damage or disease. A liver biopsy can tell if there are cancer cells or other abnormal cells in your liver. It can also tell how well your liver is working.

Liver Cancer Surgery

The best option to cure liver cancer is with either surgical resection (removal of the tumor with surgery) or a liver transplant. If all cancer in the liver is completely removed, you will have the best outlook. Small liver cancers may also be cured with other types of treatment such as ablation or radiation.

Liver Disease Consultation

Liver problems that can occur include fatty liver disease and cirrhosis. The liver and its cells — as seen through a microscope — change dramatically when a normal liver becomes fatty or cirrhotic. Liver disease doesn't always cause noticeable signs and symptoms.

Liver Disease Evaluation

Liver disease diagnosis can generally be made using a carefully obtained history, physical examination, and a few laboratory tests. Initial laboratory testing should include aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and total bilirubin.

Liver Hemangioma Surgery

Surgery to remove part of the liver, including the hemangioma. In some cases, surgeons may need to remove a portion of your liver along with the hemangioma. Procedures to stop blood flow to the hemangioma. Without a blood supply, the hemangioma may stop growing or shrink.

Liver Transarterial Chemo Embolization (TACE)

Transarterial chemoembolization or TACE combines the local delivery of chemotherapy with a procedure called embolization to treat cancer, most often of the liver. It is a non-surgical and minimally invasive procedure performed in radiology, usually by an interventional radiologist.

Liver Transplant (Living Related Donor)

A living-donor liver transplant is a surgical procedure in which a portion of the liver from a healthy living person is removed and placed into someone whose liver is no longer working properly.

Meckel's Diverticulum Surgery

Meckel diverticulectomy is surgery to remove an abnormal pouch of the lining of the small intestine (bowel). This pouch is called a Meckel diverticulum.

Ostomy

(OS-toh-mee) An operation to create an opening (a stoma) from an area inside the body to the outside. Colostomy and urostomy are types of ostomies.

Pancreatectomy

Pancreatectomy is the technical name for surgery to remove all or part of the pancreas. This procedure can be used to treat conditions like pancreatic cancer and pancreatitis.

Pancreatic Cyst Treatment

Pancreatic cysts are saclike pockets of fluid on or in your pancreas. The pancreas is a large organ behind the stomach that produces hormones and enzymes that help digest food. Pancreatic cysts are typically found during imaging testing for another problem.

Pancreatitis Treatment

Pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas. It happens when digestive enzymes start digesting the pancreas itself. Pancreatitis can be acute or chronic. Either form is serious and can lead to complications. Acute pancreatitis occurs suddenly and usually goes away in a few days with treatment.

Peptic Ulcer Treatment

Ulcers. A peptic ulcer is a sore on the lining of your stomach, small intestine or esophagus. A peptic ulcer in the stomach is called a gastric ulcer. A duodenal ulcer is a peptic ulcer that develops in the first part of the small intestine (duodenum). An esophageal ulcer occurs in the lower part of your esophagus.

Polypectomy

A polypectomy is the surgical removal of a polyp. Colon polyps can be removed through open abdominal surgery, but more commonly it is performed during a colonoscopy. The endoscopist may snip off a small polyp with a forceps or remove a larger polyp with a snare that burns through the base of the polyp.

Sigmoidoscopy

A sigmoidoscopy is a diagnostic test used to check the sigmoid colon, which is the lower part of your colon or large intestine. This section of your colon is close to your rectum and anus. A sigmoidoscopy can help diagnose the following symptoms: Diarrhea.

Stomach Cancer Surgery

Surgery. Surgery is a common treatment of all stages of gastric cancer. The following types of surgery may be used: Subtotal gastrectomy: Removal of the part of the stomach that contains cancer, nearby lymph nodes, and parts of other tissues and organs near the tumor. The spleen may be removed.

Surgery for Benign Liver Tumors

Surgery for benign liver tumors requires removing the tumor completely. This is called a liver resection. Occasionally this can be done in a minimally invasive fashion. The portion of liver that needs to be removed is determined based on the location of the tumor.

Surgery for Cholecystitis

Most people with the condition eventually need surgery to remove the gallbladder. Gallbladder removal surgery is called a cholecystectomy. Usually, this is a minimally invasive procedure, involving a few tiny incisions in your abdomen (laparoscopic cholecystectomy).

Surgery for Liver Cysts

Simple liver cysts are fluid-filled cavities in the liver. Usually, they cause no signs or symptoms and need no treatment. However, they may become large enough to cause pain or discomfort in the upper right part of the abdomen. Most liver cysts can be detected on ultrasound or computerized tomography (CT) scans.

Urea Breath Test

This test examines your breath for the presence of Helicobacter pylori bacteria, which can cause gastritis (inflammation of the mucous membrane of the stomach) or ulcers in the stomach and small intestine. The test is a painless and non-invasive procedure that takes about 20 minutes.
Urology
Urology 52 Services

Bladder Neck Incision (BNI)

A bladder neck incision (B.N.I.) and a urethrotomy, are operations for men who have a decreased urinary stream and problems passing urine because of a bladder neck stenosis or a urethral stricture.

Bladder Stone Removal

Open cystostomy. An open cystostomy is often used to remove bladder stones in men with a very large prostate, or if the stone itself is very large. It's a similar procedure to percutaneous suprapubic cystolitholapaxy, except the surgeon makes a much larger cut in the abdomen and bladder.

Circumcision

Circumcision is the surgical removal of the skin covering the tip of the penis. The procedure is fairly common for newborn boys in certain parts of the world, including the United States. Circumcision after the newborn period is possible, but it's a more complex procedure.

Cystectomy

Cystectomy (sis-TEK-tuh-me) is a surgery to remove the urinary bladder. In men, removing the entire bladder (radical cystectomy) typically includes removal of the prostate and seminal vesicles. In women, radical cystectomy also involves removal of the uterus, ovaries and part of the vagina.

Cystoscopy

A cystoscopy is a procedure to look inside the bladder using a thin camera called a cystoscope. A cystoscope is inserted into the urethra (the tube that carries pee out of the body) and passed into the bladder to allow a doctor or nurse to see inside.

Epididymal Cyst Removal

Vestibular rehabilitation is an exercise-based program, designed by a specialty-trained vestibular physical therapist, to improve balance and reduce problems related to dizziness.

Erectile Dysfunction Diagnosis

Erectile dysfunction (impotence) is the inability to get and keep an erection firm enough for sex. Having erection trouble from time to time isn't necessarily a cause for concern.

Erectile Dysfunction Treatment

Erectile dysfunction (ED) is the inability to get or keep an erection firm enough to have sexual intercourse. It's sometimes referred to as impotence, although this term is now used less often. Occasional ED isn't uncommon. Many people experience it during times of stress.

Genital Wart Treatment

Genital warts are usually a sexually transmitted disease (STD). They're caused by HPV (human papillomavirus). This virus also can cause some types of cancer. But the types of HPV that cause genital warts do not usually cause cancer.

Hydrocele Testis Treatment

A hydrocele is an accumulation of serous fluid in a body cavity. A hydrocele testis is the accumulation of fluids around a testicle. It is often caused by peritoneum wrapped around the testicle, called the tunica vaginalis. Provided there is no hernia present, it goes away without treatment in the first year.

Hypospadias Treatment

Hypospadias is a birth defect in boys in which the opening of the urethra is not located at the tip of the penis. In boys with hypospadias, the urethra forms abnormally during weeks 8–14 of pregnancy. The abnormal opening can form anywhere from just below the end of the penis to the scrotum.

Inguinal Orchiectomy

Inguinal orchiectomy (also named orchidectomy) is a specific method of orchiectomy whereby one or both testicles and the full spermatic cord are surgically removed through an incision in the lower lateral abdomen (the "inguinal region").

IVU (Intravenous Urography)

An intravenous urogram (IVU) is a test that looks at the whole of your urinary system. It's sometimes called an intravenous pyelogram (IVP). It looks at the: kidneys.

Kidney Cyst Treatment

A kidney cyst is a round or oval fluid-filled pouch with a well-defined outline. Kidney cysts typically grow on the surface of a kidney, although some may develop inside your kidney. Kidney cysts are round pouches of fluid that form on or in the kidneys.Jul 28, 2020

Kidney Stones Treatment

Kidney stones form in your kidneys. As stones move into your ureters — the thin tubes that allow urine to pass from your kidneys to your bladder — signs and symptoms can result. Signs and symptoms of kidney stones can include severe pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, chills and blood in your urine.

Kidney Surgery

A nephrectomy is surgery to remove a kidney. Your surgeon may perform a partial nephrectomy to remove only a portion of your kidney. Or you may have a radical nephrectomy, where your surgeon removes your entire kidney. If you have kidney disease or cancer, a nephrectomy can be a life-saving procedure.

Laser Treatment for BPH (Enlarged Prostate)

Holmium laser prostate surgery is a minimally invasive treatment for an enlarged prostate. Also called holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HOLEP), the procedure uses a laser to remove tissue that is blocking urine flow through the prostate.

Pediatric Urology

Pediatric urologists are surgeons who can diagnose, treat, and manage children’s urinary and genital problems.If your child has an illness or disease of the genitals or urinary tract (kidneys, ureters, bladder), a pediatric urologist has the experience and qualifications to treat your child.

Penectomy

Listen to pronunciation. (pee-NEK-toh-mee) Surgery to remove part or all of the penis (an external male reproductive organ).

Penile Prosthesis

A penile implant, or penile prosthesis, is a treatment for erectile dysfunction (ED). The surgery involves placing inflatable or flexible rods into the penis. Inflatable rods require a device filled with saline solution and a pump hidden in the scrotum.

Penis Frenuloplasty

A frenuloplasty is a specialized technique which removes the tight fold of skin on the underside of the penis, allowing increased penile skin range of motion and sexual enjoyment. What are the benefits of having a frenuloplasty? The benefit is that foreskin is not removed.

Peyronie's Disease Treatment

Peyronie's (pay-roe-NEEZ) disease is a noncancerous condition resulting from fibrous scar tissue that develops on the penis and causes curved, painful erections. Penises vary in shape and size, and having a curved erection isn't necessarily a cause for concern.

Phimosis Surgery

Phimosis surgery, also called circumcision or postectomy, aims to remove excess skin from the penis. It is performed to prevent penile cancer, urinary tract infections and sexually transmitted infections.

Photodynamic Diagnostics in Urology

Photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) is a diagnostic modality that involves the emission of light-induced excitation fluorescence to enhance early detection, without tumor destruction, after photosensitizer exposure to blue light.

Prostate Biopsy

A prostate biopsy is a procedure to remove samples of suspicious tissue from the prostate. The prostate is a small, walnut-shaped gland in males that produces fluid that nourishes and transports sperm. During a prostate biopsy a needle is used to collect a number of tissue samples from your prostate gland.

Prostate Surgery

Prostatectomy is surgery to remove part or all of the prostate gland. The prostate gland is situated in the male pelvis, below the urinary bladder. It surrounds the urethra, which carries urine from the bladder to the penis. The procedure is used to treat a number of conditions affecting the prostate.

Prostate Ultrasound

A prostate ultrasound, sometimes called prostate sonography, is a test that produces black-and-white images of your prostate by bouncing sound waves off your body's tissues. This test is used to examine your prostate for the presence of any abnormalities, cancer, or other prostate-related conditions.

Prostatectomy

Prostatectomy is surgery to remove part or all of the prostate gland. The prostate gland is situated in the male pelvis, below the urinary bladder.

Pyeloplasty

Pyeloplasty is surgery to correct a condition called ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction. “Pyelo” refers to the kidney (renal pelvis). “Plasty” is the term for a surgical procedure that repairs, restores or replaces something.

Reverse Vasectomy

Vasectomy reversal is surgery to undo a vasectomy. During the procedure, a surgeon reconnects each tube (vas deferens) that carries sperm from a testicle into the semen. After a successful vasectomy reversal, sperm are again present in the semen, and you may be able to get your partner pregnant.

Simple Orchiectomy

In a simple orchiectomy, the testicle and just a short segment of the spermatic cord are removed, typically through an incision in the scrotal wall. Simple orchiectomies are performed for reasons of severe infection or chronic pain. Both testicles can be removed to temporarily help in the treatment of prostate cancer.

Spermatic Cord Hydrocole Treatment

Spermatic cord hydrocele is a collection of fluid along the spermatic cord that lies superior to the testicle and does not communicate with the scrotal sac. It is a rare congenital anomaly resulting from abnormal closure of the processus vaginalis.

Testicular Biopsy

Testicular biopsy is a procedure in which a small portion of testicle is removed for examination. The biopsy is performed by creating a small incision in the skin of the scrotum. A small piece of the testicle tissue is removed through the incision by snipping the sample off with small scissors.

Testicular Tumor Removal

Cancer that forms in tissues of one or both testicles. Testicular cancer is most common in young or middle-aged men. Most testicular cancers begin in germ cells (cells that make sperm) and are called testicular germ cell tumors.

Transurethral Resection of Bladder Tumors (TURBT)

TURBT is the procedure done to diagnose and to treat early stage bladder cancer at the same time. The initials stand for transurethral resection of a bladder tumor. This procedure is the first-line diagnostic test and treatment for bladder cancer.

Transurethral Resection of the Prostate (TURP)

A transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) is a surgical procedure that involves cutting away a section of the prostate. The prostate is a small gland in the pelvis only found in men. It's located between the penis and bladder, and surrounds the urethra (the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the penis).

Undescended Testicle Surgery

An undescended testicle is usually corrected with surgery. The surgeon carefully manipulates the testicle into the scrotum and stitches it into place (orchiopexy). This procedure can be done either with a laparoscope or with open surgery.

Ureteral Catheter Removal

A ureteral catheter acts as a counter brace that facilitates transmission of arterial pulsations into the ureteral wall.

Ureteral Reimplantation Surgery

Ureteral reimplantation is a surgery to fix the tubes that connect the bladder to the kidneys. The surgery changes the position of the tubes at the point where they join the bladder to stop urine from backing up into the kidneys.

Ureteral Stent Placement

Ureteral stent placement is a surgery to place a soft plastic tube in the ureter. The ureters are long tubes from the kidneys to the bladder. It carries urine out of the kidney into the bladder.

Ureteral Stone Removal

Ureteral stones are kidney stones that have become stuck in one or both ureters (the tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder). If the stone is large enough, it can block the flow of urine from the kidney to the bladder. This blockage can cause severe pain.

Ureteroplasty

Urethroplasty is surgery performed on your urethra, a part of your urinary system. The urethra is a tube that carries urine from your urinary bladder to the outside of your body. In men, the urethra also carries semen outside of their bodies.

Ureteroscopy

Ureteroscopy is a procedure to address kidney stones, and involves the passage of a small telescope, called a ureteroscope, through the urethra and bladder and up the ureter to the point where the stone is located.

Urethral Surgery

Ureteral surgeries are procedures that fix problems with the flow of urine between the ureter (the tube that carries urine from the kidney to the bladder) and the kidney.

Urinalysis

A urinalysis is a test of your urine. It's used to detect and manage a wide range of disorders, such as urinary tract infections, kidney disease and diabetes. A urinalysis involves checking the appearance, concentration and content of urine.

Urinary Incontinence Treatment

Urinary incontinence means a person leaks urine by accident. While it can happen to anyone, urinary incontinence, also known as overactive bladder, is more common in older people, especially women. Bladder control issues can be embarrassing and cause people to avoid their normal activities.

Uroflow (Urine Flow Rate Test)

A urine flow test calculates the speed of urine flow over time. It may be used to check how the bladder and sphincter are working. The bladder is part of the urinary tract. It's a hollow muscular organ that relaxes and expands to store urine.

Urology Consultation

Urology is a part of health care that deals with diseases of the male and female urinary tract (kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra). It also deals with the male organs that are able to make babies (penis, testes, scrotum, prostate, etc.).

Urology Ultrasound

Urology is a part of health care that deals with diseases of the male and female urinary tract (kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra). It also deals with the male organs that are able to make babies (penis, testes, scrotum, prostate, etc.).

Urostomy

A urostomy is an opening in the belly (abdominal wall) that's made during surgery. It re-directs urine away from a bladder that's diseased, has been injured, or isn't working as it should. The bladder is either bypassed or removed. (Surgery to remove the bladder is called a cystectomy.)

Varicocelectomy

Varicocelectomy is a surgery that removes swollen veins inside the scrotum, called varicoceles. There aren't any medications that treat or get rid of varicoceles, so your doctor may recommend surgery to remove them.

Vasectomy

Vasectomy is a form of male birth control that cuts the supply of sperm to your semen. It's done by cutting and sealing the tubes that carry sperm. Vasectomy has a low risk of problems and can usually be performed in an outpatient setting under local anesthesia.
Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT)
Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT) 38 Services

Adenoidectomy

An adenoidectomy, or adenoid removal, is surgery to remove the adenoid glands. While adenoids help protect the body from viruses and bacteria, they sometimes become swollen and enlarged or chronically infected. This can be due to infections, allergies, or other reasons.

Bone-Anchored Hearing Aid (BAHA)

The system consists of three components: the titanium fixture, the abutment and the external sound processor. Baha is a technology that combines a sound processor with a small titanium fixture implanted behind the ear. This unique system allows the bone to transfer sound to a functioning cochlea (See How the Ear Works) rather than via the middle ear – a process known as direct bone conduction.

Cochlear Implant

A cochlear implant is a small electronic device that electrically stimulates the cochlear nerve (nerve for hearing). The implant has external and internal parts. The external part sits behind the ear. It picks up sounds with a microphone. It then processes the sound and transmits it to the internal part of the implant.

Dacryocystorhinostomy

Vestibular rehabilitation is an exercise-based program, designed by a specialty-trained vestibular physical therapist, to improve balance and reduce problems related to dizziness.

Decortication of Vocal Cords

In Reinke's edema, the vocal cords swell past their normal size and/or develop polyps, which affects the patient's voice quality. Decortication of the vocal cords involves removing layers of the vocal cords to improve the condition and restore the original voice as much as possible.

Ear Cleaning

Ear cleaning (by a doctor): When ear wax accumulates enough, it may block the ear canal (and hearing). A health care professional may have to wash it out, vacuum it, or remove it with special instruments. Alternatively, your physician may prescribe ear drops that are designed to soften the wax.

Ear, Nose and Throat Consultation

A general ENT consultation is an appointment with an otolaryngologist for conditions affecting the ears, nose and throat. Although the three organs appear distinct from one another, all of them are part of the upper respiratory system. They also have similarities, including the mucous lining.

Glossectomy

A glossectomy is the surgery done to remove part of or all of the tongue. It can be used to treat cancers of the tongue, some oral cavity (inside the mouth) and throat cancers. The tongue's jobs include tasting, swallowing, breathing, licking and speaking.

Hearing Aids

Hearing aids work by amplifying sound through a three-part system: The microphone receives sound and converts it into a digital signal. The amplifier increases the strength of the digital signal. The speaker produces the amplified sound into the ear.

Hearing Assessment

An audiological assessment is a painless, noninvasive hearing test that measures a person's ability to hear different sounds, pitches or frequencies.

Impedence Audiometry

Impedance or immitance audiometry is an objective assessment method of the function of the middle ear. By increasing acoustic pressure in the external ear canal, impedance audiometry measures the sum of resistance which a sound wave encounters on its way through the middle ear to the cochlear receptor.

Laryngeal Surgery

Laryngeal framework surgery is used to treat patients with vocal cord paralysis or laryngeal stenosis, to restore the original shape of their larynx. It also can be used to treat people who have had cancer, surgery that caused nerve damage or a trauma to the larynx.

Laryngectomy

A laryngectomy is a major surgery that is done to remove your voice box, or larynx. Your larynx is the part of your throat that contains your voice box. It's located at the upper end of your windpipe (trachea). Your larynx is important for breathing, swallowing, and speaking.

Laryngoscopy

Laryngoscopy is a procedure a doctor uses to look at the larynx (voice box), including the vocal cords, as well as nearby structures like the back of the throat.

Mastoidectomy

A mastoidectomy is surgery to remove cells in the hollow, air-filled spaces in the skull behind the ear within the mastoid bone. These cells are called mastoid air cells.

Middle Ear Analysis

A tympanometry measurement makes it possible to evaluate the middle ear mobility (compliance) in response to changes in air pressure and gives information about the air pressure status in the middle ear. The results of a tympanometry test are recorded on a graph called a tympanogram.

Myringoplasty

A myringoplasty is a surgery performed by an otolaryngologist to repair a hole in the eardrum. In this surgery, the hole is repaired by placing a graft made of either a small piece of tissue from elsewhere on the body, or a gel-like material.

Myringotomy

A myringotomy is a procedure to create a hole in the ear drum to allow fluid that is trapped in the middle ear to drain out. The fluid may be blood, pus and/or water. In many cases, a small tube is inserted into the hole in the ear drum to help maintain drainage.

Nasal Endoscopy

Nasal endoscopy is a procedure to look at the nasal and sinus passages. It's done with an endoscope. This is a thin, flexible tube with a tiny camera and a light. An ear, nose, and throat doctor (otolaryngologist) will often do this procedure in his or her office.

Nasal Obstruction Treatment

Nasal Obstruction is anything that restricts airflow in and out of the nose affecting one or both nasal passages. Nasal obstruction is usually caused by either swelling of the nasal tissue or an anatomical blockage which results in a narrowing of the nasal cavity and the feeling of the passages being congested.

Nasal Polyps Removal

In endoscopic surgery, the surgeon inserts a small tube with a lighted magnifying lens or tiny camera (endoscope) into your nostrils and guides it into your sinus cavities. He or she uses tiny instruments to remove polyps and other substances that block the flow of fluids from your sinuses.

Nasopharyngolaryngoscopy

Nasopharyngolaryngoscopy, diagnostic medical procedure that uses a flexible fibre-optic endoscope to visualize the structures inside the nasal passages, including the sinus openings, the larynx, and the vocal cords. The type of endoscope used for this procedure is called a nasopharyngolaryngoscope.

Neck Dissection

Neck dissection is a major surgery done to remove lymph nodes that contain cancer. It is done in the hospital. Before surgery, you will receive general anesthesia. This will make you sleep and unable to feel pain.

Nose Fracture Treatment

A nose fracture is a break in the bone or cartilage over the bridge, or in the sidewall or septum (structure that divides the nostrils) of the nose. A nasal fracture is a break in the bone over the ridge of the nose. It usually results from a blunt injury and is one of the most common facial fracture.

Ossicular Chain Reconstruction

Ossicular chain reconstruction (also called middle ear bone surgery) can improve conductive hearing. It can be done to replace a damaged malleus or incus bone. During surgery, you will be given local anesthesia with sedation.

Pediatric Tongue-Tie Surgery

A simple surgery called a frenotomy is an effective treatment for many children. A healthcare provider can often do this procedure in the office. The provider makes a cut in the frenulum. This lets the tongue move normally.

Salivary Stones Treatment

Salivary stones, also called sialolithiasis, are hardened mineral deposits that form in the salivary glands. The condition is more likely to affect people age 30 to 60 and men are more likely to get salivary stones than women.

Sinus Surgery

Sinus surgery is a group of procedures available to ENTs to help patients find relief from recurrent sinus infection or symptoms. Sometimes patients with abnormal growths or structures don't respond well to allergy treatments or antibiotics. Both methods are the first call to action to help patients find relief.

Sleep Apnea Surgery

Sleep surgery is a surgery performed to treat sleep disordered breathing. Sleep disordered breathing is a spectrum of disorders that includes snoring, upper airway resistance syndrome, and obstructive sleep apnea.

Stapedectomy

A stapedectomy is surgery to treat hearing loss caused by otosclerosis. This condition affects your hearing by damaging your stape, a tiny U-shaped bone in your middle ear. Your stape helps you hear by sending sound waves from your middle ear to your inner ear.

Submandibular Gland Surgery

Submandibular gland removal is surgery to take out a saliva gland below the lower jaw. The gland may have been removed because of infection, a tumour, or a blocked saliva duct. A saliva duct is a tube that carries saliva from the gland into the mouth.

Thyroid Scan

A thyroid scan is a nuclear medicine examination that uses the emissions of gamma rays from radioactive iodine to help determine whether a patient has thyroid problems, including hyperthyroidism, cancer, or other growths.

Thyroidectomy

Thyroidectomy is the surgical removal of all or part of your thyroid gland. Your thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland located at the base of your neck. It produces hormones that control every aspect of your metabolism, from your heart rate to how quickly you burn calories.

Tonsillectomy

Tonsillectomy is the surgical removal of the tonsils, two oval-shaped pads of tissue at the back of the throat — one tonsil on each side. A tonsillectomy was once a common procedure to treat infection and inflammation of the tonsils (tonsillitis).

Tympanoplasty

Tympanoplasty is a surgery to repair the eardrum. The eardrum is a thin layer of tissue that vibrates in response to sound.

Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty

Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) is surgery to open the upper airways by taking out extra tissue in the throat. It may be done alone to treat mild obstructive sleep apnea or snoring or with other procedures to treat moderate obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).

Uvulopalatoplasty

Uvulopalatoplasty is a surgical procedure performed with the aim of reducing or eliminating snoring. It is an out-patient procedure, in which a laser is used to remove parts or all of the uvula at the rear of the mouth. The surgery usually requires three to five visits, with each lasting less than 30 minutes.

Voice Restoration Surgery

Surgical voice restoration is a means of re-connecting the patient's pulmonary airflow to a vibratory source to produce a pseudo-voice.
Orthopedics
Orthopedics 125 Services

Abscess Debridement

Ablation is a procedure to treat atrial fibrillation. It uses small burns or freezes to cause some scarring on the inside of the heart to help break up the electrical signals that cause irregular heartbeats. This can help the heart maintain a normal heart rhythm.

Achilles Tendon Rupture

If your Achilles tendon ruptures, you might hear a pop, followed by an immediate sharp pain in the back of your ankle and lower leg that is likely to affect your ability to walk properly. Surgery is often performed to repair the rupture. For many people, however, nonsurgical treatment works just as well

Acromioclavicular Joint Repair

This surgery repairs a severe separation injury of the AC joint in your shoulder. This is where your clavicle meets your scapula. With a severe separation injury, the ligaments that connect these bones are torn.

Ankle Arthroscopy

Foot and ankle surgery is a sub-specialty of orthopedics and podiatry that deals with the treatment, diagnosis and prevention of disorders of the foot and ankle.

Ankle Fracture Treatment

A broken bone must be immobilized so that it can heal. In most cases, this requires a special boot or a cast. Surgery. In some cases, an orthopedic surgeon may need to use pins, plates or screws to maintain proper position of your bones during healing.

Ankle Fusion Surgery

Ankle fusion is a surgery to fuse 2 or more bones in the ankle. This helps stop the pain and swelling. Your surgeon will make an incision in your ankle to work on the joint. He or she will then compress the bones together and attach them with plates, nails, screws, or other hardware.

Ankle Surgery

For an ankle replacement, the surgeon removes the ends of the damaged bones and fits a plastic-and-metal replacement joint onto them. In this procedure, the surgeon removes the ends of the damaged bones and fits a plastic-and-metal replacement joint onto them.

Artificial Limb Services

The Artificial Limb & Appliance Service (ALAS) is an NHS Wales organisation providing support, equipment and rehabilitation to people with permanent or long-term impairment. It is commissioned by Health Commission Wales (an executive agency of the Welsh Assembly Government), and is provided through a consortium arrangement between three NHS Wales trusts, each hosting one centre (ALAC).

Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation (ACI)

Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation (ACI) is a process whereby articular cartilage cells (chondrocytes) are collected, multiplied in a laboratory to increase cell number and then re-implanted (after approximately 4 weeks) with a special surgical technique into the damaged area of the knee.

Avascular Necrosis (AVN) Treatment

In the early stages of avascular necrosis, symptoms might be eased with medication and therapy. Your doctor might recommend: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Medications, such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others) or naproxen sodium (Aleve) might help relieve the pain associated with avascular necrosis.

Baker's Cyst Treatment

A Baker's cyst can sometimes go away on its own and it doesn't always cause pain. However, it's important to have the condition diagnosed by your healthcare provider to make sure it isn't a more serious medical condition.

Benign Bone Tumor Removal

Treating benign bone tumors using surgery calls for removing the tumor as well as promoting the growth of new healthy bone at the site of the tumor. The surgeon caring for these tumors should try to remove the tumor with the least amount of trauma to surrounding normal bone tissue.

Bone Fracture Treatment

Treatment includes immobilising the bone with a plaster cast, or surgically inserting metal rods or plates to hold the bone pieces together. Some complicated fractures may need surgery and surgical traction.

Boutonniere Deformity Treatment

The most common treatment for boutonniere deformity involves stabilizing your finger with a splint that rests on the middle joint. The splint creates pressure to straighten and immobilize the finger.

Bow Legs Treatment

The bowed legs can be corrected gradually using an adjustable frame. The surgeon cuts the bone and connects an adjustable external frame to it with wires and pins.

Bunion Surgery

For a severe bunion, surgery may involve removing the enlarged portion of the bone, cutting and realigning the bone, and correcting the position of the tendons and ligaments. Arthritic bunion or big toe joint. If the joint is damaged beyond repair, as is often seen in arthritis, it may need to be fused.

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Surgery

During carpal tunnel release, a surgeon makes an incision in the palm of your hand over the carpal tunnel ligament and cuts through the ligament to relieve pressure on the median nerve. The surgery may be done by making one incision on the palm side of the wrist, or by making several small incisions.

Cervical Fracture Treatment

A minor (compression) fracture is often treated with a cervical collar or brace worn for six to eight weeks until the bone heals on its own. A more severe or complex fracture may require traction, or surgical repair or a spinal fusion.

Cervical Strain Treatment

Most patients feel relief using anti-inflammatory medications such as ibuprofen, or using ice, moist heat or a neck brace. Physical therapy, massage and stretching can also be effective. Generally, symptoms resolve in a few days to a few weeks.

Chondroma Treatment

Curettage describes a procedure in which a tumor is surgically scraped out of the bone, leaving a cavity that is then packed with either donor bone tissue (allograft), bone chips taken from another bone (autograft), or other materials depending on the preference of the surgeon.

Clubfoot Treatment

Treatment for club foot usually starts within 1 to 2 weeks of your baby being born. The main treatment, called the Ponseti method, involves gently manipulating and stretching your baby's foot into a better position. It's then put into a cast. This is repeated every week for about 5 to 8 weeks.

Coccydynia Treatment

Direct trauma to the tailbone is the most common cause of coccydynia, and usually leads to inflammation surrounding the coccyx, which contributes to pain and discomfort. There are many cases reported in which pain begins with no identifiable origin (called idiopathic coccydynia).

Compartment Syndrome Treatment

Acute compartment syndrome must be treated in hospital using a surgical procedure called an emergency fasciotomy. The doctor or surgeon makes an incision to cut open your skin and fascia surrounding the muscles to immediately relieve the pressure inside the muscle compartment.

Congenital Hip Dislocation Treatment

It may be concluded that in this age group congenital hip dislocation is best treated by non-surgical reduction, possibly followed by surgery of the femur and acetabulum. Surgical reduction was only indicated when conservative methods failed.

Core Decompression of the Hip

Hip core decompression is a surgical procedure used to treat osteonecrosis, or avascular necrosis (AVN) of the hip. It involves drilling one larger hole, or several smaller holes into the dead bone of the femoral head (top of thigh bone) in order to relieve pressure in the bone.

Cubital Tunnel Syndrome

Cubital Tunnel Syndrome is a condition that involves pressure or stretching of the ulnar nerve (also known as the “funny bone” nerve), which can cause numbness or tingling in the ring and small fingers, pain in the forearm, and/or weakness in the hand.

De Quervain Syndrome Treatment

Applying heat or ice to the affected area. Taking a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). These include ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) or naproxen (Aleve). Avoiding activities that cause pain and swelling. Especially avoid those that involve repetitive hand and wrist motions.

Dislocated Elbow Treatment

Simple elbow dislocations are treated by keeping the elbow immobile in a splint or sling for 1 to 3 weeks, followed by early motion exercises. If the elbow is kept immobile for a long time, the ability to move the elbow fully (range of motion) may be affected.

Dislocated Hip Treatment

The most important treatment of a dislocated hip is to properly position the ball back in the socket, which is called a joint reduction. 2 In order to reposition the hip joint, the patient will often require general anesthesia.

Dislocated Shoulder Treatment

A shoulder dislocation is an injury that happens when the ball pops out of your socket. A dislocation may be partial, where the ball is only partially out of the socket. It can also be a full dislocation, where the ball is completely out of the socket.

Dupuytren's Contracture Treatment

Dupuytren's contracture is when 1 or more fingers bend in towards your palm. There's no cure, but your fingers can be straightened if it's severe.

Elbow Arthroscopy

Elbow arthroscopy is a minimally invasive technique used by orthopaedic surgeons to diagnose and treat a range of conditions affecting the joint. As in other joints, arthroscopy of the elbow involves the use of fiberoptics and a tiny camera that is inserted through small incisions or portals.

Elbow Pain Treatment

By Mayo Clinic Staff. Elbow pain is often caused by overuse. Many sports, hobbies and jobs require repetitive hand, wrist or arm movements. Elbow pain may occasionally be due to arthritis, but in general, your elbow joint is much less prone to wear-and-tear damage than are many other joints.

Elbow Replacement

Elbow replacement involves surgically replacing bones that make up the elbow joint with artificial elbow joint parts (prosthetic components). The artificial joint consists of two stems made of high-quality metal. They are joined together with a metal and plastic hinge that allows the artificial elbow joint to bend.

Elbow Sprain Treatment

An elbow sprain can occur when your arm is quickly bent or twisted in an unnatural position. It can also happen when the ligaments are overloaded during regular movement. Elbow sprains can happen when: You fall with your arm stretched out, such as when playing sports.

Elbow Surgery

Elbow replacement surgery (sometimes referred to as total elbow arthroplasty) is an operation that surgeons use to relieve pain and restore motion to a damaged elbow. During this surgery, a doctor replaces your elbow joint with an artificial joint. Elbow replacement surgery does not always involve the entire elbow.

Exostosis Treatment

An exostosis is an extra growth of bone that extends outward from an existing bone. Common types of exostoses include bone spurs, which are bony growths also known as osteophytes. An exostosis can occur on any bone, but is often found in the feet, hip region, or ear canal.

External Fracture Fixation

External fixation is a process for fracture fixation by which pins or wires are inserted into bone percutaneously and held together via an external scaffold. Initially described by Malgaigne in 1853, external fixation was proposed as an alternative to immobilization in plaster cast, traction, or internal fixation.

Femur Fracture Treatment

A broken thighbone, also known as a femur fracture, is a serious and painful injury. The femur is one of the strongest bones in the body, and a break or fracture in the femur bone is often caused by severe injury such as trauma sustained in a motor vehicle accident.

Foot Surgery

Foot and ankle surgery is a subspecialty of orthopedics and podiatry that deals with the treatment, diagnosis and prevention of disorders of the foot and ankle.

Fracture Treatment

The initial management of fractures consists of realignment of the broken limb segment (if grossly deformed) and then immobilizing the fractured extremity in a splint. The distal neurologic and vascular status must be clinically assessed and documented before and after realignment and splinting.Mar 31, 2022

Fractured Shoulder Treatment

A shoulder fracture is a break or a crack in one of the three following bones; the clavicle, scapula or the proximal humerus. In the latter case, it would be called a broken shoulder. The humerus can be broken in many places and the fracture is normally described by its location.

Frozen Shoulder Treatment

Frozen shoulder, also known as adhesive capsulitis, is a condition characterized by stiffness and pain in your shoulder joint. Signs and symptoms typically begin gradually, worsen over time and then resolve, usually within one to three years.

Ganglion Cyst Removal

Ganglion cyst removal is usually an outpatient procedure and may be performed under local or general anesthesia. Before surgery, your doctor may draw a line above the cyst to mark the incision location. During the surgery, your doctor numbs the treatment area and cuts along the line with a scalpel.

Hammer, Claw, or Mallet Toe Treatment

A hammertoe has an abnormal bend in the middle joint of a toe. Mallet toe affects the joint nearest the toenail. Hammertoe and mallet toe usually occur in your second, third and fourth toes. Relieving the pain and pressure of hammertoe and mallet toe may involve changing your footwear and wearing shoe inserts.

Hand Joints Synovectomy

Synovectomy: This surgery is usually indicated for early cases of inflammatory arthritis where there is significant swelling (synovitis) that is causing pain or is limiting the range of motion of digits and thumb. Synovectomy is a surgical removal of the inflamed synovium (tissue lining the joint).

Hand Surgery

Hand surgery is the field of medicine that deals with problems of the hand, wrist, and forearm. Hand surgeons care for these problems with and without surgery. They are specially trained to operate when necessary.

Hip Arthroplasty

Hip replacement, also called hip arthroplasty, is a surgical procedure to address hip pain. The surgery replaces parts of the hip joint with artificial implants. The hip joint consists of a ball (at the top of the femur, also known as the thigh bone) and a socket (in the pelvis, also known as the hip bone).

Hip Arthroscopy

Hip arthroscopy is a minimally invasive surgery used to treat issues in your hip. Your surgeon will make a few small incisions (cuts) in the skin of your hip then insert a special tool called an arthroscope into your hip joint.

Hip Cartilage Damage Treatment

The commonly performed surgical procedures include arthroscopic lavage and debridement, marrow stimulation, mosaicplasty, allograft osteochondral transplantation and autologous chondrocyte implantation.

Hip Fracture Surgery

A hip fracture can be repaired with the help of metal screws, plates and rods. In some cases, artificial replacements (prostheses) of parts of the hip joint may be necessary. Treatment for hip fracture usually involves a combination of surgery, rehabilitation and medication.

Hip Pain Treatment

Hip pain is the general term for pain felt in or around the hip joint. It isn't always felt in the hip itself but may instead be felt in the groin or thigh.

Hip Replacement

A hip replacement is a common type of surgery where a damaged hip joint is replaced with an artificial one (known as an implant). Adults of any age can be considered for a hip replacement, although most are done on people between the ages of 60 and 80.

Hip Surgery

Hip replacement, also called hip arthroplasty, is a surgical procedure to address hip pain. The surgery replaces parts of the hip joint with artificial implants.

Joint Injection

Joint injections are non-surgical procedures that apply a solution of anesthetic and corticosteroid directly to damaged joint tissue. This can provide you with the relief you need to improve your range of motion and participate in physical therapy exercises that were too difficult for you before.

Jumper's Knee Treatment

Jumper's knee, also known as patellar tendonitis, is a condition characterized by inflammation of your patellar tendon. This connects your kneecap (patella) to your shin bone (tibia). Jumper's knee weakens your tendon, and, if untreated, can lead to tears in your tendon.

Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis Treatment

Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a form of arthritis in children. Arthritis causes joint swelling (inflammation) and joint stiffness. JIA is arthritis that affects one or more joints for at least 6 weeks in a child age 16 or younger.

Kirschner Wire Removal

The K-wires stick out of the skin so that they can be easily removed once the bone has healed. They are covered with a dressing and a plaster cast and you / the patient will not be able to see them; alternatively they may be exposed out of the toe or finger.

Knee Arthroplasty

Knee replacement surgery (arthroplasty) is a common operation that involves replacing a damaged, worn or diseased knee with an artificial joint. Adults of any age can be considered for a knee replacement, although most are carried out on people between the ages of 60 and 80.

Knee Arthroscopy

Knee arthroscopy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure. Healthcare providers use knee arthroscopy to diagnose and treat a range of knee injuries. Your healthcare provider makes a small incision and then inserts a long, thin tool with a camera on the end.

Knee Cartilage Damage Treatment

The slippery articular cartilage that coats your bones helps with smooth movement. If it's torn or worn, it can leave the rough bone surfaces exposed – resulting in friction in the joint. Damaged cartilage can potentially lead to knee arthritis, with long-term effects on your knee function.

Knee Cartilage Surgery

Cartilage surgery is performed arthroscopically or an incision is made in the front of the knee. Arthroscopy consists in making two small 5-mm incisions in the front of the knee. An arthroscope, or small camera, is inserted through one of the incisions to view the joint, and in particular the damaged cartilage.

Knee Fracture Treatment

A patella fracture is a break in your kneecap, the bone that covers your knee joint. It's usually caused by a traumatic injury, such as a fall or a blow to your kneecap. A patella fracture can be simple or complex. Some fractures require surgery to repair.

Knee Ligament Surgery (ACL)

The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the key ligaments that help stabilize your knee joint. The ACL connects your thighbone (femur) to your shinbone (tibia). It's most commonly torn during sports that involve sudden stops and changes in direction — such as basketball, soccer, tennis and volleyball.

Knee Ligament Surgery (MCL)

An MCL tear is damage to the medial collateral ligament, which is a major ligament that's located on the inner side of your knee. The tear can be partial (some fibers in the ligament are torn) or complete (the ligament is torn into two pieces).

Knee Ligament Surgery (PCL)

The posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) is a fibrous band of tissue on the inside of the knee, connecting the shinbone to the thigh bone. It functions to prevent the tibia from sliding backward on the femur. The PCL works with the ACL for stabilization of the knee. It can be injured when the knee is hyperextended.

Knee Replacement

Knee replacement, also called knee arthroplasty or total knee replacement, is a surgical procedure to resurface a knee damaged by arthritis. Metal and plastic parts are used to cap the ends of the bones that form the knee joint, along with the kneecap.

Knee Sprain Treatment

A knee sprain refers to torn or overstretched ligaments, the tissues that hold bones together. If you have a sprained knee, the structures within the knee joint that connect the thigh bone to the shin bone have been injured. A knee sprain is painful and can create other problems over time, including arthritis.

Knee Surgery

Knee replacement, also called knee arthroplasty or total knee replacement, is a surgical procedure to resurface a knee damaged by arthritis. Metal and plastic parts are used to cap the ends of the bones that form the knee joint, along with the kneecap.

Kneecap Stabilization

Patella stabilisation surgery also known as patella realignment is a surgical procedure to stabilise and realign the patella following subluxation, dislocation and subsequent misalignment of the knee cap during movements.

Lateral Release of the Patella

Lateral release is a minimally invasive surgery used to correct an excessive patellar tilt. It involves cutting through a tight retinaculum so that the kneecap can slip properly into its groove, thereby restoring its normal alignment.

Leg Length Discrepancy (LLD) Treatment

A limb length discrepancy (LLD) is when one arm or leg is longer than the other arm or leg. A difference in leg lengths is more likely to be noticed and to affect activities of daily living.

Limb Amputation

Amputation is the surgical removal of all or part of a limb or extremity such as an arm, leg, foot, hand, toe, or finger. About 1.8 million Americans are living with amputations. Amputation of the leg -- either above or below the knee -- is the most common amputation surgery.

Little League Elbow Treatment

Little league elbow is a term used to describe lesions in the medial aspect of the elbow in preadolescent and adolescent baseball pitchers. Most commonly seen in children under the age of 10. The phenomenon is correlated to chronic forces of valgus overload produced during the early and late cocking phases of throwing.

Meniscus Surgery

Meniscus surgery is a common operation to remove or repair a torn meniscus, a piece of cartilage in the knee. The surgery requires a few small incisions and takes about an hour. Recovery and rehabilitation take a few weeks.

Metal Implant Removal

Metal implants are biomaterials widely used in orthopedics. They are both used in osteosynthesis and arthroplasty. Their mechanical properties, biocompatibility and resistance to corrosion make them a widely used option in orthopedics. Alloys are the most commonly used metals in orthopedics.

Metatarsal Phalangeal Joint Replacement

The metatarsophalangeal joint (MTP) is located in the forefoot where the metatarsal and phalanx bones meet. Synovitis is a swelling of the joint lining. MTP synovitis is a common disorder caused by excessive stress on that joint, usually exacerbated by activity.

Morton's Neuroma Treatment

Morton's neuroma is a benign but painful condition that affects the ball of the foot. It's also called an intermetatarsal neuroma because it's located in the ball of the foot between your metatarsal bones. It happens when the tissue around a nerve that leads to a toe thickens from irritation or compression.

MPFL (Medial Patellofemoral Ligament) Surgery

MPFL reconstruction is a surgery in which a new medial patellofemoral ligament is created to stabilize the knee and help protect the joint from additional damage. (Find a surgeon who performs MPFL reconstruction.) It offers an excellent treatment option for people who have experienced more than one dislocation.

Muscle Reconstruction

Flap surgery involves transporting healthy, live tissue from one location of the body to another - often to areas that have lost skin, fat, muscle movement, and/or skeletal support.

Orthopedics Consultation

Orthopedics is a branch of medicine that focuses on the care of the musculoskeletal system. This system is made up of muscles and bones, as well as joints, ligaments, and tendons. A person who specializes in orthopedics is known as an orthopedist.

Osteoarthritis Consultation

Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis, affecting millions of people worldwide. It occurs when the protective cartilage that cushions the ends of the bones wears down over time. Although osteoarthritis can damage any joint, the disorder most commonly affects joints in your hands, knees, hips and spine.

Osteoarthritis Treatment

Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis, affecting millions of people worldwide. It occurs when the protective cartilage that cushions the ends of the bones wears down over time. Although osteoarthritis can damage any joint, the disorder most commonly affects joints in your hands, knees, hips and spine.

Osteochondritis Dissecans Treatment

Osteochondritis dissecans (os-tee-o-kon-DRY-tis DIS-uh-kanz) is a joint condition in which bone underneath the cartilage of a joint dies due to lack of blood flow. This bone and cartilage can then break loose, causing pain and possibly hindering joint motion.

Osteochondrosis Treatment

Osteochondrosis is a self-limiting developmental derangement of normal bone growth, primarily involving the centers of ossification in the epiphysis. [1, 2] It usually begins in childhood as a degenerative or necrotic condition. By definition, osteochondrosis is an aseptic ischemic necrosis.

Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) Treatment

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is an inherited (genetic) bone disorder that is present at birth. It is also known as brittle bone disease. A child born with OI may have soft bones that break (fracture) easily, bones that are not formed normally, and other problems.

Osteoma Treatment

An osteoma (plural: "osteomata") is a new piece of bone usually growing on another piece of bone, typically the skull. It is a benign tumor. When the bone tumor grows on other bone it is known as "homoplastic osteoma"; when it grows on other tissue it is called "heteroplastic osteoma".

Osteomalacia Treatment

Osteomalacia refers to a marked softening of your bones, most often caused by severe vitamin D deficiency. The softened bones of children and young adults with osteomalacia can lead to bowing during growth, especially in weight-bearing bones of the legs. Osteomalacia in older adults can lead to fractures.

Osteomyelitis Treatment

Osteomyelitis is an infection in a bone. Infections can reach a bone by traveling through the bloodstream or spreading from nearby tissue. Infections can also begin in the bone itself if an injury exposes the bone to germs.

Osteoporosis Treatment

Osteoporosis is a disease that weakens bones to the point where they break easily—most often, bones in the hip, backbone (spine), and wrist. Osteoporosis is called a “silent disease” because you may not notice any changes until a bone breaks. All the while, though, your bones had been losing strength for many years.

Osteotomy

An osteotomy is any surgery that cuts and reshapes your bones. You may need this type of procedure to repair a damaged joint. It's also used to shorten or lengthen a deformed bone that doesn't line up with a joint like it should. You don't need to be very sick or old to have an osteotomy.

Paget's Disease Treatment

Paget's (PAJ-its) disease of bone interferes with your body's normal recycling process, in which new bone tissue gradually replaces old bone tissue. Over time, bones can become fragile and misshapen. The pelvis, skull, spine and legs are most commonly affected.

Patellar Dislocation Treatment

A patellar dislocation is a knee injury in which the patella (kneecap) slips out of its normal position. Often the knee is partly bent, painful and swollen. The patella is also often felt and seen out of place. Complications may include a patella fracture or arthritis.

Pes Anserine Bursitis Treatment

Pes anserine bursitis is an inflammation of the bursa located between the shinbone (tibia) and three tendons of the hamstring muscle at the inside of the knee. It occurs when the bursa becomes irritated and produces too much fluid, which causes it to swell and put pressure on the adjacent parts of the knee.

Plantar Fasciitis Treatment

Plantar fasciitis is the inflammation of the plantar fascia, tissue in the foot used during walking and foot movement. Plantar fasciitis can be caused by a number of factors, including type of shoes, foot structure, overuse and types of walking surfaces.

Revision Joint Surgery

A revision joint replacement means that surgery must be done to replace a worn-out joint replacement. Also called revision arthroplasty, revision joint replacement is often more complicated than the initial joint replacement and the revision surgery may have less predictable results.

Rickets Treatment

Rickets is a condition that affects bone development in children. It causes bone pain, poor growth and soft, weak bones that can lead to bone deformities. Adults can experience a similar condition, which is known as osteomalacia or soft bones. Read more about the signs and symptoms of rickets and osteomalacia.

Rotator Cuff Surgery

Rotator cuff repair is surgery to repair a torn tendon in the shoulder. The procedure can be done with a large (open) incision or with shoulder arthroscopy, which uses smaller incisions.

Scaphoid Fracture Treatment

A scaphoid (navicular) fracture is a break in one of the small bones of the wrist. This type of fracture occurs most often after a fall onto an outstretched hand. Symptoms of a scaphoid fracture typically include pain and tenderness in the area just below the base of the thumb.

Sciatica Treatment

Sciatica refers to pain that radiates along the path of the sciatic nerve, which branches from your lower back through your hips and buttocks and down each leg. Typically, sciatica affects only one side of your body.

Shoulder Arthroplasty

Shoulder replacement removes damaged areas of bone and replaces them with parts made of metal and plastic (implants). This surgery is called shoulder arthroplasty (ARTH-row-plas-tee). The shoulder is a ball-and-socket joint.

Shoulder Arthroscopy

Shoulder arthroscopy is surgery that uses a tiny camera called an arthroscope to examine or repair the tissues inside or around your shoulder joint.

Shoulder Capsular Release

Capsular release is a minimally invasive surgical procedure to treat frozen shoulder (adhesive capsulitis). This is a condition that develops when the capsule of connective tissues surrounding the shoulder thickens and tightens, causing pain and restricted movement.

Shoulder Impingement Syndrome Treatment

Shoulder impingement is a very common cause of shoulder pain, where a tendon (band of tissue) inside your shoulder rubs or catches on nearby tissue and bone as you lift your arm. It affects the rotator cuff tendon, which is the rubbery tissue that connects the muscles around your shoulder joint to the top of your arm.

Shoulder Labrum Surgery

Shoulder labrum reconstruction is a surgical technique recommended for treating labral tears. Labrum repair can be done using minimally invasive technique or open surgery. In this procedure the torn labrum is reattached to the rim of the bone using anchor sutures along with tightening of the capsules and ligaments.

Shoulder Ligament Repair

Shoulder reconstruction is a surgical procedure performed in patients with shoulder instability to improve stability, restore the function and prevent recurrent dislocations of the shoulder joint.

Shoulder Replacement

Shoulder replacement removes damaged areas of bone and replaces them with parts made of metal and plastic (implants). This surgery is called shoulder arthroplasty (ARTH-row-plas-tee). The shoulder is a ball-and-socket joint. The round head (ball) of the upper arm bone fits into a shallow socket in the shoulder.

Shoulder Stabilization

Shoulder stabilization surgery is done to improve stability and function to the shoulder joint and prevent recurrent dislocations. It can be performed arthroscopically, depending on your particular situation, with much smaller incisions.

Shoulder Surgery

Shoulder surgery repairs a damaged, degenerated or diseased shoulder joint. It is a treatment for a variety of diseases and conditions in your shoulder joint. These commonly include rotator cuff tears, shoulder dislocations, and shoulder separations.

Shoulder Tendon Reconstruction

Shoulder reconstruction is a surgical procedure performed in patients with shoulder instability to improve stability, restore the function and prevent recurrent dislocations of the shoulder joint.

SLAP Tear Repair

SLAP repair is a surgical procedure to reattach the torn labrum to the bone of the shoulder socket. This procedure restores the normal anatomy and functioning of your shoulder. You should follow your surgeon's instructions and rehabilitation plan for a faster recovery after the surgery.

Snapping Hip Treatment

Snapping hip is a condition in which you feel a snapping sensation or hear a popping sound in your hip when you walk, get up from a chair, or swing your leg around. The snapping sensation occurs when a muscle or tendon (the strong tissue that connects muscle to bone) moves over a bony protrusion in your hip.

Synovium Removal

Synovectomy is a procedure where the synovial tissue surrounding a joint is removed. This procedure is typically recommended to provide relief from a condition in which the synovial membrane or the joint lining becomes inflamed and irritated and is not controlled by medication alone.

Tendon Repair

Tendon repair is a type of surgery to fix damaged or torn tendons. Movement can be extremely limited when tendons are torn or damaged. The affected area may feel weak and cause constant pain.

Tennis or Golfer's Elbow Treatment

The pain of golfer's elbow occurs primarily where the tendons of the forearm muscles attach to the bony bump on the inside of the elbow (medial epicondyle). By contrast, the pain of tennis elbow usually occurs at the bony bump on the outside of the elbow (lateral epicondyle).

Toe Implant

A number of different toe implants are available to treat osteoarthritis. Some implants are synthetic cartilage used to replace the damaged surface of the cartilage at the base of the big toe. These implants have the same look and feel as natural cartilage.

Toe Joint Replacement

A first MTP joint replacement treats arthritis of the big toe. The bone on either side of the joint is partially removed and replaced with metal, plastic, or a combination of both. First MTP joint replacement can lessen pain and retain motion.

Trapped Nerve Treatment

Trapped Nerve is a condition in which one or more nerves in the vertebrae are compressed or 'pinched' leading to impaired movement or sensation.

Treatment for Achilles Tendinitis

Achilles tendinitis is an overuse injury of the Achilles tendon, the band of tissue that connects calf muscles at the back of the lower leg to your heel bone. Achilles tendinitis most commonly occurs in runners who have suddenly increased the intensity or duration of their runs.

Treatment for Osgood-Schlatter Disease

Osgood-Schlatter disease is a condition that causes pain and swelling below the knee joint, where the patellar tendon attaches to the top of the shinbone (tibia), a spot called the tibial tuberosity. There may also be inflammation of the patellar tendon, which stretches over the kneecap.

Trigger Finger Treatment

Trigger finger is a condition in which one of your fingers gets stuck in a bent position. Your finger may bend or straighten with a snap — like a trigger being pulled and released. Trigger finger is also known as stenosing tenosynovitis.

Trochleoplasty

A trochleoplasty is a surgical correction of the femoral trochlea to restore a normal or nearly normal entry of the patella into the trochlear groove during extension and flexion. Some general prerequisites are necessary to performing this procedure successfully.

Ulnar Nerve Decompression

Ulnar nerve decompression is surgical procedure designed to explore the region around the elbow through which the ulnar nerve passes. The ulnar nerve is responsible for the “funny bone” phenomenon when you hit your elbow.

Wrist Arthroscopy

Wrist arthroscopy is surgery that uses a tiny camera and surgical tools to examine or repair the tissues inside or around your wrist. The camera is called an arthroscope. The procedure allows the doctor to detect problems and make repairs to the wrist without making larger cuts in the skin and tissue.

Wrist Instability Treatment

Dislocations occur when a large force, usually hyperextension, pushes the bone out of its normal joint position. Wrist instability occurs when one or more of the wrist ligaments have lost integrity, are lax, or damaged. This alters the normal wrist mechanics of the carpal bones and hence affects your hand function.
Gynecology
Gynecology 72 Services

Amniocentesis

Amniocentesis is a procedure in which amniotic fluid is removed from the uterus for testing or treatment. Amniotic fluid is the fluid that surrounds and protects a baby during pregnancy. This fluid contains fetal cells and various proteins.

Antenatal Care (ANC)

Antenatal care (ANC) coverage is an indicator of access and use of health care during pregnancy. The antenatal period presents opportunities for reaching pregnant women with interventions that may be vital to their health and wellbeing and that of their infants.

Bartholin's Cyst Treatment

Experts believe that the cause of a Bartholin's cyst is a backup of fluid. Fluid may accumulate when the opening of the gland (duct) becomes obstructed, perhaps caused by infection or injury. A Bartholin's cyst can become infected, forming an abscess.

Breast Biopsy

A breast biopsy is a procedure to remove a sample of breast tissue for testing. The tissue sample is sent to a lab, where doctors who specialize in analyzing blood and body tissue (pathologists) examine the tissue sample and provide a diagnosis

Breast Exam

A breast self-exam for breast awareness is an inspection of your breasts that you do on your own. To help increase your breast awareness, you use your eyes and hands to determine if there are any changes to the look and feel of your breasts.

Cardiotocography (CTG)

Cardiotocography is a technique used to monitor the fetal heartbeat and the uterine contractions during pregnancy and labour. The machine used to perform the monitoring is called a cardiotocograph.

Cervical Biopsy

A cervical biopsy is a surgical procedure in which a small amount of tissue is removed from the cervix. The cervix is the lower, narrow end of the uterus located at the end of the vagina. A cervical biopsy is usually done after an abnormality has been found during a routine pelvic exam or Pap smear.

Cervical Cautery

Cervical Cauterization is a procedure wherein heat (or diathermy) is used for treating the cells on the neck of the cervix. This procedure causes delicate, easily broken cells to grow into newer, healthy and strong cells which are unlikely to result in discharge or irregular bleeding.

Cervical Cerclage

Cervical cerclage is a medical procedure in which your doctor places a single stitch around your cervix, the opening to your uterus. The stitch sews your cervix closed. Doctors perform cerclage to prevent late (second trimester) miscarriages and preterm (early) delivery.

Cervical Conization

Cervical conization (CPT codes 57520 (Cold Knife) and 57522 (Loop Excision)) refers to an excision of a cone-shaped sample of tissue from the mucous membrane of the cervix. Conization may be used for either diagnostic purposes as part of a biopsy or therapeutic purposes to remove pre-cancerous cells.

Cervical Polyp Removal

Cervical polyps are removed with an instrument called polyp forceps. They are used to grasp the base of the polyp and the polyp is removed with a gentle twisting motion. Occasionally, if the doctor or nurse cannot see the base of the polyp, a procedure called hysteroscopy is performed.

Cesarean Section

Cesarean section, C-section, or Cesarean birth is the surgical delivery of a baby through a cut (incision) made in the mother's abdomen and uterus. Healthcare providers use it when they believe it's safer for the mother, the baby, or both. The incision made in the skin may be: Up-and-down (vertical).

Colposcopy

Colposcopy (kol-POS-kuh-pee) is a procedure to closely examine your cervix, vagina and vulva for signs of disease. During colposcopy, your doctor uses a special instrument called a colposcope. Your doctor may recommend colposcopy if your Pap test result is abnormal.

Contraceptive Implant

The contraceptive implant (Nexplanon) is a small flexible plastic rod that's placed under the skin in your upper arm by a doctor or nurse.

Cystocele Repair

A cystocele repair is a surgery to put your bladder back in its normal place. Your surgeon will fix the wall between your bladder and vagina to keep your bladder from moving again.

Dilation and Curettage

Dilation and curettage refers to the dilation of the cervix and surgical removal of part of the lining of the uterus and/or contents of the uterus by scraping and scooping.

Ectopic Pregnancy Surgery

Salpingostomy and salpingectomy are two laparoscopic surgeries used to treat some ectopic pregnancies. In these procedure, a small incision is made in the abdomen, near or in the navel. Next, your doctor uses a thin tube equipped with a camera lens and light (laparoscope) to view the tubal area.

Endometrial Ablation

Endometrial ablation is a procedure that surgically destroys (ablates) the lining of your uterus (endometrium). The goal of endometrial ablation is to reduce menstrual flow. In some women, menstrual flow may stop completely. No incisions are needed for endometrial ablation.

Endometrial Biopsy

In an endometrial biopsy, a small piece of tissue from the lining of the uterus (the endometrium) is removed and examined under a microscope for cancer and other cell irregularities. The procedure helps find the cause of a woman's heavy or irregular bleeding.

Endometriosis Treatment

Endometriosis (en-doe-me-tree-O-sis) is an often painful disorder in which tissue similar to the tissue that normally lines the inside of your uterus — the endometrium — grows outside your uterus. Endometriosis most commonly involves your ovaries, fallopian tubes and the tissue lining your pelvis.

Episiotomy Repair

An episiotomy should be repaired promptly to reduce blood loss and prevent infection. Repair of an episiotomy is undertaken in three stages: repair of the vaginal mucosa, repair of the muscle layer and repair of the skin layer. Adequate pain relief should be provided before suturing.

Female Sterilization

Sterilization (sometimes called female sterilization, tubal ligation, or “getting your tubes tied”) is a safe and effective surgical procedure that permanently prevents pregnancy.

Fetal Echocardiography

A fetal echocardiogram (also called a fetal echo) uses sound waves to create pictures of an unborn baby's heart. This painless ultrasound test shows the structure of the heart and how well it's working.

Fetal Medicine Consultation

Consultation: Patients are often referred to maternal-fetal medicine for consultation due to a medical condition that may complicate their pregnancy. Often, patients referred for consultation continue their prenatal care with their doctor or midwife.

Fetal Surgery

Fetal surgery is a procedure performed on an unborn baby (fetus) in the uterus (in utero) to help improve the long-term outcome of children with specific birth defects.

Four Dimensional (4D) Ultrasound

4D is the fourth dimension in ultrasound when a 3D image has another dimension; time. 4D is the latest ultrasound technology. It takes many conventional 2D images, creates a surface rendered 3D image, and adds time to the process. The result is realistic live action images of your unborn child.

Gynecologic Laparoscopy

A gynaecological laparoscopy (keyhole surgery) is a procedure to look inside your lower tummy (abdomen) to examine your womb (uterus), fallopian tubes and ovaries. Gynaecological laparoscopy can be used to diagnose a condition and/or to treat it.

Gynecology Checkup

A gyn checkup is a yearly health check — like a regular eye exam or dental checkup. Doctors often call gyn checkups "well woman visits" because they're designed to keep you healthy by catching small issues before they turn into big ones.

Gynecology Consultation

Gynaecology consultation is a routine and often diagnostic procedure performed by gynecologists to assess the general condition of the female reproductive system and determine the presence of diseases and infections. It may also relate to fertility and to a certain extent, preconception, prenatal, and maternal care.

Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT)

Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is a treatment to relieve symptoms of the menopause. It replaces hormones that are at a lower level as you approach the menopause.

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Test

HPV is the name of a very common group of viruses. They do not cause any problems in most people, but some types can cause genital warts or cancer. HPV affects the skin. There are more than 100 different types.

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine

A vaccine that helps protect the body against infection with certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV infection can cause abnormal tissue growth, such as warts, and other changes to cells.

Hymenoplasty

Hymen repair (hymenoplasty) is the cosmetic repair, restoration, or construction of a woman's hymen, and is often requested by women for physical, psychological, or cultural reasons. Restoration of the hymen is also known as hymenoplasty or revirginization.

Hymenotomy

A hymenectomy (sometimes referred to as hymenotomy) is a surgical procedure where an opening is created in the hymen. It is often used when a person has a hymen that is abnormally thick, septate, or otherwise obstructing the flow of menstruation (imperforate hymen).

Hysterectomy

A hysterectomy is a surgical procedure to remove the womb (uterus). You'll no longer be able to get pregnant after the operation. If you have not already gone through the menopause, you'll no longer have periods, regardless of your age. Many women have a hysterectomy. It's more common for women aged 40 to 50.

Hysteroscopy

A hysteroscopy is a procedure used to examine the inside of the womb (uterus). It's carried out using a hysteroscope, which is a narrow telescope with a light and camera at the end. Images are sent to a monitor so your doctor or specialist nurse can see inside your womb.

Hysterosonography

What is a Hysterosonogram? Hysterosonography, also called Sonohysterography or Saline Infusion Sonography, is a minimally invasive Ultrasound exam that provides images of the inside of the uterus to help diagnose the cause of abnormal vaginal bleeding.

Intrauterine Device (IUD) Placement

IUDs are shaped like a T, with one arm on either side. The doctor will fold down the arms and place the device into an applicator tube, then insert the tube through your cervix into your uterus. Once the IUD is in place, the arms will release and the doctor will remove the applicator tube.

Intrauterine Device (IUD) Removal

The IUD is removed by securely grasping the threads at the external os with ring forceps. Traction should be applied away from the cervix. If resistance is met, the removal should be abandoned until it is determined why the IUD is not moving. A deeply embedded IUD may have to be removed hysteroscopically.

Menopause Checkup

This is a home-use test kit to measure Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) in your urine. This may help indicate if you are in menopause or perimenopause.

Microdochectomy

A Microdochectomy is a surgical procedure in which a single duct is removed from the nipple areolar complex. It is usually undertaken when a patient has nipple discharge from a single duct. The patient will be asked not squeeze the nipple before attending the operating theatre.

Myomectomy

Myomectomy (my-o-MEK-tuh-me) is a surgical procedure to remove uterine fibroids — also called leiomyomas (lie-o-my-O-muhs). These common noncancerous growths appear in the uterus. Uterine fibroids usually develop during childbearing years, but they can occur at any age.

Nuchal Translucency Scan (NT scan)

An NT scan is a common screening test that occurs during the first trimester of pregnancy. This test measures the size of the clear tissue, called the nuchal translucency, at the back of your baby's neck. It's not unusual for a fetus to have fluid or clear space at the back of their neck.

Oophorectomy

An oophorectomy (oh-of-uh-REK-tuh-me) is a surgical procedure to remove one or both of your ovaries. Your ovaries are almond-shaped organs that sit on each side of the uterus in your pelvis. Your ovaries contain eggs and produce hormones that control your menstrual cycle.

Ovarian Cyst Removal

Laparoscopy. Using a laparoscope — a slim, lighted instrument inserted into your abdomen through a small incision — your doctor can see your ovaries and remove the ovarian cyst. This is a surgical procedure that requires anesthesia.

Ovarian Transposition Surgery

A procedure used to help keep a woman fertile by preventing damage to the ovaries during radiation therapy. Before radiation therapy begins, one or both ovaries and fallopian tubes are separated from the uterus and attached to the wall of the abdomen away from where the radiation will be given.

Ovarian Tumor Removal

The first goal of ovarian cancer surgery is to stage the cancer − to see how far the cancer has spread from the ovary. Usually this means removing the uterus (this operation is called a hysterectomy), along with both ovaries and fallopian tubes (this is called a bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy or BSO).

Pap Smear Test

A Pap smear (also called a Pap test) screens for cervical cancer. The test checks for abnormal cells in the cervix that are cancerous or have the potential to become cancerous. During a Pap smear, your healthcare provider takes cells from the cervix to examine under a microscope for signs of cancer.

Pelvic Adhesiolysis

Hysteroscopic adhesiolysis is a surgery that removes adhesions from inside the uterus. Adhesions can cause pain and complications with pregnancy. Having adhesions in the uterus is also called Asherman syndrome.

Pelvic Exam

Pelvic exam. A doctor or nurse inserts one or two lubricated, gloved fingers of one hand into the vagina and presses on the lower abdomen with the other hand. This is done to feel the size, shape, and position of the uterus and ovaries. The vagina, cervix, fallopian tubes, and rectum are also checked. Enlarge.

Pelvic Floor Electrical Stimulator

During pelvic floor electrical stimulation, a low-grade electrical current (similar to “TENS” units used in physical therapy) stimulates the muscles to contract creating a muscular response similar to Kegels (an exercise for your pelvic floor muscles).

Pelvic Floor Repair

A pelvic floor repair is the most common surgery for prolapse. It is a broad term used to describe simple surgical repairs of the pelvic floor. More specifically, the term anterior repair refers to correction of the front wall of the vagina; and posterior repair refers to correction of the back wall of the vagina.

Pessary Placement

A pessary is a prosthetic device that can be inserted into the vagina to support its internal structure. It's often used in the case of urinary incontinence and a vaginal or pelvic organ prolapse. A prolapse occurs when the vagina or another organ in the pelvis slips out of its usual place.

Pregnancy Ultrasound

A pregnancy ultrasound is an imaging test that uses sound waves to create a picture of how a baby is developing in the womb. It is also used to check the female pelvic organs during pregnancy.

Prenatal Counseling

Preconception counseling is an appointment with your healthcare provider that's used to plan for a future pregnancy. Your family history, risk factors, medical conditions and lifestyle are all discussed. This appointment is an important part of a planned and healthy pregnancy.

Prenatal Testing

Prenatal screening tests can identify whether your baby is more or less likely to have certain birth defects, many of which are genetic disorders. These tests include blood tests, a specific type of ultrasound and prenatal cell-free DNA screening.

Presacral Neurectomy

Presacral Neurectomy is the surgical removal of the presacral plexus, the group of nerves that conducts the pain signal from the uterus to the brain.

Screening for Down Syndrome (Triple Test)

The triple screen measures serum hCG, AFP and unconjugated estriol to calculate the risk of Down syndrome and can detect up to 69% of Down syndrome pregnancies. Currently, the quadruple test, usually performed at 15-18 weeks' gestation, is the most common screening test performed in the second trimester.

Tubal Ligation Reversal

A tubal ligation reversal is a procedure to reverse a tubal ligation — when the fallopian tubes are cut or blocked to permanently prevent pregnancy. During a tubal ligation reversal, your doctor removes the obstructed area of the fallopian tubes and reattaches the fallopian tubes to allow pregnancy.

Urodynamic Evaluation

Urodynamic testing is any procedure that looks at how well parts of the lower urinary tract—the bladder, sphincters, and urethra—work to store and release urine. Most urodynamic tests focus on how well your bladder can hold and empty urine.

Uterine Artery Embolization (UAE)

Uterine artery embolization (UAE) is a procedure to treat fibroids without surgery. Uterine fibroids are noncancerous (benign) tumors that develop in the uterus (womb). During the procedure, the blood supply to the fibroids is cut off. This typically causes the fibroids to shrink.

Uterine Prolapse Surgery

Hysterectomy and prolapse repair: Uterine prolapse may be treated by removing the uterus in a surgical procedure called a hysterectomy. This may be done through a cut (incision) made in the vagina (vaginal hysterectomy) or through the abdomen (abdominal hysterectomy).

Uterosacral Nerve Ablation

Laparoscopic uterine nerve ablation (LUNA) involves the destruction of a small segment of ligament that carries nerve fibres within the pelvis.

Vaginal Childbirth

A vaginal delivery is the birth of offspring in mammals (babies in humans) through the vagina (also called the "birth canal"). It is the most common method of childbirth worldwide.

Vaginal Culture Test

Vaginal culture; Female genital tract culture; Culture - cervix. Endocervical culture is a laboratory test that helps identify infection in the female genital tract.

Vaginal Vault Prolapse Surgery

Vaginal vault prolapse is descent of the vaginal apex (after hysterectomy) into the lower vagina, to the hymenal ring, or through the vaginal introitus.

Vaginectomy

Vaginectomy is a surgery to remove all or part of the vagina. It is usually used as a treatment for vaginal cancer.

Vaginismus Treatment

Vaginismus is the body's automatic reaction to the fear of some or all types of vaginal penetration. Whenever penetration is attempted, your vaginal muscles tighten up on their own. You have no control over it. Occasionally, you can get vaginismus even if you have previously enjoyed painless penetrative sex.

Vaginoplasty

Vaginoplasty is a procedure to construct or repair a vagina. It treats various medical issues, including vaginal injury due to childbirth and pelvic floor disease complications. It's also for creating a transgender vagina, which helps individuals achieve their preferred gender identity.

Vulval Biopsy

A vulva biopsy is when a doctor takes a small sample of tissue from an abnormal area of the vulva. They send this to a laboratory to be examined under a microscope. A biopsy can help to diagnose vulval cancer.

Vulval Skin Treatment

The vulva is the outer part of the female reproductive system. It's also part of the external genitalia. The vulva includes the mons pubis. This is the rounded area in front of the pubic bones at the lower part of the belly (abdomen). It becomes covered with hair at puberty.

Vulvectomy

A vulvectomy is removal of part or all of the vulva. The vulva is the outer portion of a woman's genitals and includes: The labia minora and majora (small and large lips). Clitoris.
Dentistry
Dentistry 75 Services

Alineadent

It is an invisible 3D orthodontics made exclusively for each patient with a flexible material

All-on-2

Although the use of snap-in dentures has increased greatly in recent years, they're not expected to completely replace traditional dentures. They are an excellent option for many people, but others won't be able to tolerate them. A minority of implants are known to fail in the long-term.

All-on-4

With an All-on-4 implant, you don't need to replace each lost tooth individually. Instead, a dental professional will surgically insert four titanium posts into your jawbone as the main anchors. They can then attach a permanent denture at those four areas for a seamless look across your entire mouth.

All-on-6

The All-On-6 Dental Implant procedure creates a permanent prosthesis by using six dental implants. It acts as anchors for a bridge or over-denture. Six implants are positioned in the lower or upper jawbone to anchor prosthetic teeth in place permanently.

All-on-8

All-on-8” is a dental implant procedure where a prosthesis is attached to the jawbone, similar to the very popular “all-on-4” method, however, the prosthesis is supported by eight dental implants rather than four.

Alveoloplasty

Alveoloplasty is a common dental procedure often performed following a tooth extraction. This procedure helps recreate the natural contour of the gums and jaw that may have been lost due to bone loss from tooth extraction, or for another reason.

Apicoectomy

An apicoectomy is a common dental procedure where inflamed gum tissue and the end of the root of your tooth is removed while the top of your tooth is left in place. It's often called a root-end resection because it works on the end (or, tip) of your root called the apex.

Bone Augmentation

Bone grafting is a surgical procedure that replaces missing bone in order to repair bone fractures that are extremely complex, pose a significant health risk to the patient, or fail to heal properly.

Bone Graft

Bone grafting is a surgical procedure that uses transplanted bone to repair and rebuild diseased or damaged bones. A bone graft is a choice for repairing bones almost anywhere in your body. Your surgeon might take bone from your hips, legs, or ribs to perform the graft.

Braces

Dental braces (also known as braces, orthodontic cases, or cases) are devices used in orthodontics that align and straighten teeth and help position them with regard to a person's bite, while also aiming to improve dental health.

Bruxism Treatment

Treatments for teeth grinding (bruxism) include using mouth guards or mouth splints, and therapy.

Corticotomy-Assisted Orthodontics

Corticotomy-assisted orthodontics has been reported in a few clinical cases, and seems to be a promising adjuvant technique, indicated for many situations in the orthodontic treatment of adults without active periodontal pathology. Its main advantages are reduction of treatment time and postorthodontic stability.

Cosmetic Dentistry Consultation

Cosmetic dentistry is generally used to refer to any dental work that improves the appearance (though not necessarily the functionality) of teeth, gums and/or bite. It primarily focuses on improvement in dental aesthetics in color, position, shape, size, alignment and overall smile appearance.

Crown Lengthenin

Crown lengthening is a surgical procedure performed by a dentist, or more frequently a specialist periodontist. There are a number of reasons for considering crown lengthening in a treatment plan.

Custom Mouthguard

Getting a custom mouthguard is absolutely worth the effort and the cost at your dentist's office. This is because it better protects your teeth, is more comfortable, and allows you to breathe properly regardless of what you need to do with your mouthguard in.

Dental Bonding

Teeth bonding is a procedure in which a tooth-colored resin material (a durable plastic material) is applied and hardened with a special light, which ultimately "bonds" the material to the tooth to restore or improve a person's smile.

Dental Bridge

If you have missing teeth, your dentist can close — or bridge — the gaps in your smile with dental bridges. A dental bridge is a false tooth (called a pontic) that is held in place by the abutment teeth on either side of the gap.

Dental Checkup

Dental checkups are routine visits that consist of an examination and cleaning. Dental treatments are specialized visits to treat issues with fillings, deep teeth cleanings, root canals, teeth removal, and more. Dental treatments are scheduled on an as-needed basis, while dental checkups follow a regular schedule.

Dental Crown

In dentistry, crown refers to the anatomical area of teeth, usually covered by enamel. The crown is usually visible in the mouth after developing below the gingiva and then erupting into place. If part of the tooth gets chipped or broken, a dentist can apply an artificial crown.

Dental CT Scan

Dental cone beam computed tomography (CT) is a special type of x-ray equipment used when regular dental or facial x-rays are not sufficient. Your doctor may use this technology to produce three dimensional (3-D) images of your teeth, soft tissues, nerve pathways and bone in a single scan.

Dental Implant Bars

Implant bars are a mix between dentures and implants. Unlike common dentures, a bar is implanted in the patient's mouth, and the denture snaps onto the bar to hold it in place. These are generally made of acrylic with the higher-quality bars using natural-looking teeth and gums.

Dental Implant

A dental implant is a prosthesis that interfaces with the bone of the jaw or skull to support a dental prosthesis such as a crown, bridge, denture, or facial prosthesis or to act as an orthodontic anchor.

Dental Impression

A dental impression is a negative imprint of hard (teeth) and soft tissues in the mouth from which a positive reproduction (cast or model) can be formed. It is made by placing an appropriate material in a stock or custom dental impression tray which is designed to roughly fit over the dental arches. Impression material is of liquid or semi-solid nature when first mixed and placed in the mouth. It then sets to become an elastic solid (usually takes a few minutes depending upon the material), leaving an imprint of person's dentition and surrounding structures of oral cavity.

Dental Post and Core

Post and core is a dental restoration treatment that's sometimes performed after a root canal. When a significant portion of a tooth's structure is removed, a post and core can help keep a dental crown in place. Dental crowns are put on top of teeth, to protect them from further damage or infection.

Dental X-Rays

Dental X-rays (radiographs) are images of your teeth that your dentist uses to evaluate your oral health. These X-rays are used with low levels of radiation to capture images of the interior of your teeth and gums. This can help your dentist to identify problems, like cavities, tooth decay, and impacted teeth

Dentin Hypersensitivity Treatment

20.4. 4 Treatment of dentin hypersensitivity by laser radiation. Dentin hypersensitivity is characterized by short, sharp pain arising from exposed dentin as a response to stimuli, typically thermal, evaporative, tactile, osmotic, or chemical, which cannot be ascribed to any other form of dental defect or pathology.

Dentistry Consultation

A consultation is basically an evaluation of the current condition of your teeth. If you haven't seen a dentist in a while, you may be worried or embarrassed about the current state of your teeth. A good dentist won't be judgmental or make you feel bad about your current dental health.

Denture

Dentures are prosthetic devices constructed to replace missing teeth, and are supported by the surrounding soft and hard tissues of the oral cavity. Conventional dentures are removable.

Digital Smile Design

Digital Smile Design (DSD) is a treatment planning protocol that allows for careful analysis of the patient's facial and dental structures through state-of-the-art videography and digital technology. Today, the DSD Concept is considered the most modern, patient-centered design approach available.

Fluoride Application

Fluoride treatments are typically professional treatments containing a high concentration of fluoride that a dentist or hygienist will apply to a person's teeth to improve health and reduce the risk of cavities. These in-office treatments may take the form of a solution, gel, foam, or varnish.

Frenectomy

Frenectomy refers to the procedure that removes the connective tissue (called the frenum) at either the top or the bottom of the mouth, specifically under the tongue or the upper gums. We offer this procedure at our offices in Lynn, MA and Salem, MA.

Gingivectom

A gingivectomy refers to the removal of diseased gum tissue. A gingivoplasty procedure is typically performed to reshape otherwise healthy gum tissues. One procedure, however, is rarely performed without the other.

Gingivoplasty

GINGIVOPLASTY is the surgical reshaping of gum tissue around the teeth. It is often is done simply to make gums look better. They may have an unusual shape or may not be formed normally. The causes can include a person's genes, disease or trauma. Gingivoplasty reshapes the gums to make them look more natural.

Gnathology Treatment

Gnathology is a branch of specialized dentistry that studies and cures the masticatory system in all its anatomical and functional aspects.

Gum Tissue Graft

A gum graft is a type of dental surgery performed to correct the effects of gum recession. It is a quick and relatively simple surgery in which a periodontist removes healthy gum tissue from the roof of the mouth and uses it to build the gum back up where it has receded.

Hygienic Treatment

Hygienic is commonly used to mean clean and sanitary. It can also mean promoting good health or related to or involving hygiene—a collection of practices to promote and preserve health, or a condition involving the use of such practices.

Impacted Tooth Extraction

Wisdom tooth extraction is a surgical procedure to remove one or more wisdom teeth — the four permanent adult teeth located at the back corners of your mouth on the top and bottom.

Implant-Supported Dental Bridge

Implant-supported bridges are very similar to traditional bridges. However, instead of being supported by dental crowns placed over adjacent teeth, implant-supported bridges attach to small titanium posts embedded in the jaw. The number of posts placed will depend on the size of the bridge.

Implant-Supported Overdenture

An implant-retained overdenture is a removable dental prosthesis that is supported by the residual oral tissues and employs dental implants for retention. Implant-retained overdentures are a treatment alternative for many patients for whom conventional dentures are poorly tolerated.

Inlays/Onlays

In dentistry, inlays and onlays are a form of indirect restoration, which means they are made outside of the mouth as a single, solid piece that fits the specific size and shape of the cavity, and then cemented in place in the tooth.

Invisalign

Invisalign is an orthodontic treatment that straightens teeth without the use of metal braces. Invisalign is a series of custom-made clear braces that cover your teeth and gently pull them into the proper position over time.

Laser Treatment for Gum Disease

Laser treatment is a non-surgical gum disease treatment where the dentist uses a laser to access an infected area to destroy an infected bacteria and tissue. It is an excellent alternative to conventional gum surgery because it permits treatment without stitching or cutting and with less discomfort to the patient.

Lingual Braces

Lingual braces are one of the many types of the fixed orthodontic treatment appliances available to patients needing orthodontics.

Mini Dental Implant

Mini dental implants are a special type of tooth replacement for missing teeth. Like their full-sized counterparts, mini dental implants provide a permanent structure to replace missing teeth. While regular dental implants effectively replace missing teeth, they are not right for everyone.

Open Flap Debridement

In dentistry, open flap debridement is a periodontal procedure in which the supporting alveolar bone and root surfaces of teeth are exposed by incising the gingiva to provide increased access for scaling and root planing.

Oral Cyst Treatment

An oral cyst is a type of small growth that can occur in the mouth. It's a small fluid-filled sac that feels like a little bump. These oral cysts are sometimes referred to as mucoceles or mucous cysts. In most cases, oral cysts may feel odd, but they are harmless.

Orthodontics Consultation

Orthodontics is a branch of dentistry that treats malocclusion, a condition in which the teeth are not correctly positioned when the mouth is closed. This results in an improper bite. An orthodontist specializes in making the teeth straight.

Pediatric Dentistry

A pediatric dentist, defined, is a specially trained dentist who focuses on caring for children from infancy through the teenage years, and also adults with special needs.

Periodontal Scaling

Scaling is when your dentist removes all the plaque and tartar (hardened plaque) above and below the gumline, making sure to clean all the way down to the bottom of the pocket. Your dentist will then begin root planing, smoothing out your teeth roots to help your gums reattach to your teeth.

Periodontal Surgery

Periodontal surgery is a dental procedure to restore the look and function of teeth, gums, and bone damaged due to severe gum disease. A periodontist can help you determine if you're a candidate for surgery.

Pulpotomy

Pulpotomy is a dental procedure done to save a severely decayed tooth. It's most commonly done on children with baby teeth, but it may also be used for adults and older children who already have their permanent teeth. This procedure is used to remove infected pulp from under the tooth's crown.

Recessed Gum Treatment

Your gums fit tightly around your teeth to help anchor them into your mouth and to protect them from damage. To have receding gums means that the gum tissue surrounding your teeth has pulled back to expose more of your tooth than is normal.

Retainer

Orthodontic retainers are custom-made devices, usually made of wires or clear plastic, that hold teeth in position after surgery or any method of realigning teeth.

Root Canal Consultation

A root canal is a dental procedure involving the removal of the soft center of the tooth, the pulp. The pulp is made up of nerves, connective tissue, and blood vessels that help the tooth grow. In the majority of cases, a general dentist or endodontist will perform a root canal while you're under local anesthesia.

Root Canal

A root canal is a dental procedure involving the removal of the soft center of the tooth, the pulp. The pulp is made up of nerves, connective tissue, and blood vessels that help the tooth grow. In the majority of cases, a general dentist or endodontist will perform a root canal while you're under local anesthesia.

Root Resection

Root resection is the process by which one or more of the roots of a tooth are removed at the level of the furcation while leaving the crown and remaining roots in function.

Sandblasting

Intra-oral sandblasting or “air abrasion” involves firing a pressurised flow of “sand” at the decayed or weakened tooth surface. The weakest part of the tooth is removed first, thereby conserving as much healthy tooth structure as possible.

Scaling and Root Planing

Scaling and root planing, also known as conventional periodontal therapy, non-surgical periodontal therapy or deep cleaning, is a procedure involving removal of dental plaque and calculus (scaling or debridement) and then smoothing, or planing, of the (exposed) surfaces of the roots, removing cementum or dentine that ...

Sinus Lift

A sinus lift refers to the augmentation or lifting up of the maxillary sinus to make more room for new bone. The maxillary sinuses are air-filled cavities that are located just above the back portion of the maxilla or upper jaw.

Space Maintainer

Dental space maintainers are devices used to leave enough space open for permanent teeth to grow in after baby teeth are lost prematurely. While it might not seem like a big problem at first, not taking care of a gap can lead to expensive problems down the road.

Teeth Cleaning

During a routine dental cleaning, your hygienist uses special tools to remove sticky plaque and hard tartar deposits from the surfaces of your teeth above your gums. These cleanings are very important for preventing gum disease and even for treating very mild forms of the disease (called gingivitis).

Teeth Polishing

Dental polishing, sometimes called tooth polishing, is a cleaning method your dentist uses to keep your teeth healthy. It is used to: Smooth the surface of your teeth. Remove stains. Get rid of plaque.

Teeth Splinting

Teeth that have become loose because of lost gum tissue can benefit from a new technique called dental splinting which attaches weak teeth together, turning them into a single unit that is stable and stronger than the single teeth by themselves. The procedure is most commonly performed on the front teeth.

Teeth Whitening

Tooth whitening is any process that lightens the color of a tooth. Whitening may be accomplished by physical removal of the stain or a chemical reaction to lighten the tooth color. Bleaching is defined here as the chemical degradation of the chromogens.

Temporary Dentistry

A temporary restoration is a dental composite, bridge, crown, or filling used until permanent, restorative dental work is carried out. These temporary materials are also known as temps or provisional restorations. In some cases, dental prostheses may take some time to be created and placed.

Tooth Abscess Drainage

A dental abscess is a collection of pus that can form inside the teeth, in the gums or in the bone that holds the teeth in place. It's caused by a bacterial infection. An abscess at the end of a tooth is called a periapical abscess. An abscess in the gum is called a periodontal abscess.

Tooth Extraction

A tooth extraction is a procedure to remove a tooth from the gum socket. It is usually done by a general dentist, an oral surgeon, or a periodontist.

Tooth Filling

A tooth filling is a procedure wherein the damaged and decayed part of a tooth is removed and the area is filled with a replacement material to protect against further damage and to restore the tooth's appearance and function.

Tooth Hemisection

Hemisection is sectioning of multi-rooted teeth with its crown portion, with the loss of periodontal attachment and is performed to retain the original tooth structure and attain the fixed prosthodontic prosthesis.

Tooth Jewelry

Tooth jewelry is an adornment that is set on the front of your tooth. This style rage lets you express your uniqueness through your smile, making it progressively one of a kind and fashionable.

Tooth Reshaping

Tooth reshaping, also called dental contouring, is a cosmetic dentistry technique that removes small amounts of tooth enamel (the outer covering of the tooth) in order to change the shape, length, or surface of one or more teeth.

Tooth Sealant

Dental sealants are thin coatings that when painted on the chewing surfaces of the back teeth (molars) can prevent cavities (tooth decay) for many years. Sealants protect the chewing surfaces from cavities by covering them with a protective shield that blocks out germs and food.

Veneers

Dental veneers are thin, tooth-colored shells that are attached to the front surface of teeth to improve their appearance. They’re often made from porcelain or resin-composite materials and are permanently bonded to your teeth.

Wisdom Tooth Extraction

Wisdom tooth extraction is a surgical procedure to remove one or more wisdom teeth — the four permanent adult teeth located at the back corners of your mouth on the top and bottom.

Zygomatic Dental Implant

Zygomatic also known as 'Zygoma' provide an alternative to bone grafting procedures in the upper jaw and are dental implants that transverse inside the poor area of your upper jaw to anchor into the underside of the cheekbones through your sinuses.
Plastic and Cosmetic Surgery
Plastic and Cosmetic Surgery 78 Services

Areola Reduction

Areola reduction surgery is performed by removing a circular area of the outer brown area of the areola. The skin surrounding this is then brought inwards in a purse string fashion to surround the areola. Absorbable stitches inside the areola are used to reduce the diameter.

Arm Lift

An arm lift is a cosmetic surgical procedure to improve the appearance of the under portion of your upper arms. During an arm lift — also known as brachioplasty — excess skin and fat are removed from between the armpit and elbow.

Belt Lipectomy

An extended tummy tuck incorporates an additional midline scar, along with the low transverse scar, for those patients with more significant skin redundancy who require more extensive skin management. A belt lipectomy is a combination procedure that includes a tummy tuck as one component.

Body Lift

A body lift, also known as body plastic surgery, improves the shape and tone by removing excess skin and the underlying fat. Excess sagging fat and skin are caused in part by poor tissue elasticity. A complete lower body lift treats the buttocks, abdomen, waist, hips and thighs in one procedure.

Breast Augmentation

Breast augmentation — also known as augmentation mammoplasty — is surgery to increase breast size. It involves placing breast implants under breast tissue or chest muscles. For some women, breast augmentation is a way to feel more confident.

Breast Capsulectomy

A capsulectomy is the surgical removal of abnormally thick, hardened tissue that forms around breast implants—a condition known as capsular contracture. Your breast implant is removed and usually replaced during the procedure.

Breast Implant Removal

Breast implant removal is surgery to take out silicone or saline implants. Typically, breast implants last for about 10 to 15 years. Some people have implant removal surgery because of tissue hardening around the implant or other complications. Others may have surgery to replace old implants with new ones.

Breast Implant Revision

The goal of breast implant revision surgery is to replace old breast implants with new implants.

Breast Implants

A breast implant is a prosthesis used to change the size, shape, and contour of a person's breast.

Breast Lift

Overall, a normal breast lift surgery will restore the breasts' youthful appearance without the need for implants.

Breast Reconstruction

Breast reconstruction is the surgical process of rebuilding the shape and look of a breast, most commonly in women who have had surgery to treat breast cancer.

Breast Reduction

Reduction mammoplasty (also breast reduction and reduction mammaplasty) is the plastic surgery procedure for reducing the size of large breasts.

Brow Lift

A brow lift, also called an eyebrow lift or forehead lift, is a cosmetic procedure that raises the eyebrows to decrease the appearance of wrinkles and frown lines and to lift sagging skin.

Buccal Fat Extraction

Buccal fat pad extraction or buccal fat removal is a plastic surgery procedure for reducing prominent cheeks, by the proportional removal of buccal fat-pad tissue.

Butt Lift

During a buttock lift, excess skin and fat are removed from the buttocks. The remaining skin is then repositioned to create a more toned look.

Buttock Augmentation

Buttock or gluteal augmentation is a procedure used to improve the volume, shape, and contour of the buttocks. Buttock augmentation can be achieved through fat grafting, (famously referred to as a Brazilian Butt Lift or BBL), silicone implants, or sometimes a combination of these two techniques

Buttock Implants

Silicone is the material used for butt implants. Unlike injections, solid silicone implants are surgically placed into the buttocks via an incision in between the butt cheeks. This procedure is sometimes combined with fat grafting for maximum results.

Calf Implants

Calf augmentation is a procedure performed to enhance the lower portion of the leg. In people with a shrunken lower leg, as a result of injury or disease, an implant can be inserted in the calf to help minimize the resultant deformity.

Cheek Augmentation

Cheek fillers are injections that raise the volume of the area above and around your cheekbones. This provides the illusion of a more defined bone structure. By injecting volume under your skin layer, cheek fillers can also smooth out wrinkles and fine lines.

Cheekbone Reduction

Zygoma reduction, also known as cheekbone reduction surgery, is a surgery used to reduce the facial width by excising part of the zygomatic bone and arch

Chin Augmentation

Chin augmentation is surgery to reshape or enhance the size of the chin. It may be done either by inserting an implant or by moving or reshaping the jaw bones.

Cleft Lip Nasal Deformity Surgery

The goals of primary bilateral cleft lip nose surgery are, closure of the nasal floor and sill, lengthening of the columella, repositioning of the alar base, achieving nasal tip projection, repositioning of the lower lateral cartilages, and reorienting the nares from horizontal to oblique position.

Cleft Lip or Palate Repair

The most common type of cleft lip repair is a rotation advancement repair. The plastic surgeon will make an incision on each side of the cleft from the lip to the nostril. The two sides of the lip are then sutured together, using tissue from the area to rearrange and close the lip as needed.

Clitoral Hood Reduction

Clitoral hood reduction, also termed clitoral hoodectomy, clitoral unhooding, clitoridotomy, or hoodectomy, is a plastic surgery procedure for reducing the size and the area of the clitoral hood in order to further expose the clitoral glans of the clitoris.

Cryolipolysis

Cryolipolysis, commonly referred to as fat freezing, is a nonsurgical fat reduction procedure that uses cold temperature to reduce fat deposits in certain areas of the body. The procedure is designed to reduce localized fat deposits or bulges that do not respond to diet and exercise.

Dermal Fillers

Dermal fillers, also known as injectable implants, soft tissue fillers, lip and facial fillers, or wrinkle fillers are medical device implants approved by the FDA for use in helping to create a smoother and/or fuller appearance in the face, including nasolabial folds (the lines extending from the sides of the nose to the edges of the mouth), cheeks, chin, lips, and back of the hands.

Dimple Creation Surgery

A dimpleplasty is a type of plastic surgery used to create dimples on the cheeks. Dimples are the indentations that occur when some people smile. They're most often located on the bottoms of the cheeks. Some people may also have chin dimples. Not everyone is born with this facial trait.

Double Eyelid Creation

Double eyelid surgery is a specific type of eyelid surgery in which creases in the upper eyelids are formed, creating double eyelids. You might choose this procedure, called blepharoplasty, if you want to correct a condition — such as droopy eyelids or eye bags — or if you want to change the appearance of your eyelids.

Ear Reconstruction

Ear reconstruction is a form of surgery that can rebuild an ear damaged by trauma or cancer surgery, or misshapen or missing due to a congenital (present at birth) disorder. Along with surgery to rebuild or repair the ear, hearing rehabilitation with an otologist may be necessary.

Eye Bag Removal

Eye bag surgery is a cosmetic procedure known as lower blepharoplasty. It lifts the lower eyelid and removes excess tissue from the under-eye area.

Eyebrow Adjustment

Eyebrow correction aims to create a perfectly shaped brow after encountering a problem with their appearance. Many people with sparse or nonexistent brows turn to permanent cosmetic procedures for the purpose of normalizing or enhancing their appearance.

Eyelid Surgery

Blepharoplasty (BLEF-uh-roe-plas-tee) is a type of surgery that repairs droopy eyelids and may involve removing excess skin, muscle and fat. As you age, your eyelids stretch, and the muscles supporting them weaken.

Face Slimming

Facial slimming is an effective non-surgical treatment used to help patients achieve a slimmer, more oval or v-shaped profile. It is ideal for people who want to reshape and slim down their face to help it look firmer and smoother.

Face Surgery

Rhytidectomy, also known as a facelift, aims to surgically remove wrinkles and tighten facial skin in order to achieve a more youthful appearance.

Facelift

A facelift, or rhytidectomy, is a surgical procedure that improves visible signs of aging in the face and neck, such as: Relaxation of the skin of the face causing sagging. Deepening of the fold lines between the nose and corner of the mouth. Fat that has fallen or has disappeared. Jowls developing in the cheeks and ...

Facial Fat Transfer

In facial fat grafting, fat is moved to the face from another part of the body. The procedure may also be called fat transfer, micro-lipoinjection, facial fat rejuvenation, autologous fat grafting or transfer, or fat injection. It offers a more youthful appearance and can also correct problems like scars.

Facial Feminization Surgery (FFS)

Facial feminization surgery (FFS) is a procedure to make your face appear more feminine instead of masculine. FFS can change your hairline, forehead, nose, jaw and other parts of your face. You may consider this surgery if you're a transgender woman (transitioning from male to female).

Facial Implants

Facial implants are used to bring balance to the appearance of your face. These implants are commonly used to enhance the chin, jaw and/or cheeks.

Facial Trauma Surgery

Offering authoritative guidance and a multitude of high-quality images, Facial Trauma Surgery: From Primary Repair to Reconstruction is the first comprehensive textbook of its kind on treating primary facial trauma and delayed reconstruction of both the soft tissues and craniofacial bony skeleton.

Fat Reduction

Among the procedures that comprise nonsurgical fat reduction are cryolipolysis (e.g., CoolSculpting), injection lipolysis (e.g., Kybella), radiofrequency lipolysis (e.g., Vanquish) and laser lipolysis (e.g., SculpSure). Patients who are pregnant or breastfeeding should not have any of the aforementioned procedures.

Forehead Contouring

Forehead contouring is a surgical procedure that involves reconstructing the protruding brow bone and reshaping the orbital bones to achieve a softer, more feminine appearance.

Hairline Lowering Surgery

Hairline lowering or hairline advancement as it is also known is an effective procedure that offers subtle and natural-looking results. An incision is made right along the front of the hairline, then the hairline is brought forward, and the excess forehead skin is removed, with the incisions then sutured closed.

Hip Augmentation

Hip augmentation is a cosmetic procedure that can increase the size and width of your hips. It can enhance the look of your legs, increase your hip width and span, and provide your body a more pleasing shape overall. Many people undergo hip augmentation to gain an hourglass figure.

Hyaluronic Acid Threads

The use of hyaluronic threads is an innovative method that allows you to shape the contour of the face and improve the appearance of the area around the cheeks and chin. Threads allow to fill areas that have lost their firmness and freshness.

Jaw Shaping

As the name suggests, jaw shaping (or jawline contouring) involves reshaping the jawbone to improve its aesthetic appearance. Available in surgical and non-surgical forms, it is commonly used in feminisation procedures to make jawlines less "square" and more "rounded" in shape.

Labiaplasty

Labiaplasty is a surgical procedure to reduce or increase the size of your labia. The surgery is done to improve the appearance of your labia, to reduce physical discomfort or as part of gender-affirming surgery. Your labia are the folds of skin around your vagina opening. You have two folds of skin.

Lip Augmentation

Lip augmentation is a cosmetic procedure that can give you fuller, plumper lips. These days, an injectable dermal filler is the most commonly used method of lip augmentation. There are many types of dermal fillers that can be injected in your lips and around your mouth.

Lip Reduction

Lip reduction surgery involves removing skin tissues from the lower or upper lips, or sometimes both. This is done in an effort to reshape the entire lip area. First, anesthesia — either local or general — is used so you won't feel any pain.

Lipofilling

Lipofilling is the broad term which covers the process of extracting fat from one area of the body and then inserting this fat into a different area where volume, mass or reshaping is desired.

Liposculpture

Liposculpture is a surgical procedure that is used to give you more muscle tone and shapeliness. It treats little pockets of fat, unlike liposuction which covers larger areas. Instead of just removing fat, liposculpture also moves it around it for a desired shape.

Liposuction

Liposuction is a surgical procedure that uses a suction technique to remove fat from specific areas of the body, such as the abdomen, hips, thighs, buttocks, arms or neck. Liposuction also shapes (contours) these areas. Other names for liposuction include lipoplasty and body contouring.

Male Breast Augmentation

Though breast augmentation is generally considered a plastic surgery procedure for women, as the popularity of male plastic surgery rises, some men also seek augmentation surgery to increase their breast size.

Male Breast Reduction

Gynecomastia surgery, also known as male breast reduction, is the surgical correction of overdeveloped or enlarged breasts in men.

Mentoplasty

Chin surgery, also known as mentoplasty, is a surgical procedure to reshape the chin either by enhancement with an implant or reduction surgery on the bone.

Mommy Makeover

Mommy makeover is a catch-all phrase that refers to a specialized combination of body contouring procedures, performed together to improve the physical changes that linger long after pregnancy.

Muscle Ablation

The ablation of synergists for compensatory hypertrophy consists of the surgical removal of all or part of synergistic muscles, which can be either unilateral or bilateral, to generate chronic functional overload that causes hypertrophy.

Neck Lift

The surgeon carefully lifts the muscles of the neck and removes extra skin and fat, then closes the incisions and applies a pressure dressing around your head and underneath the chin. Afterward, your neck may feel tight, and you may notice some bruising, which fades in a couple of weeks.

Nipple Augmentation

Breast augmentation — also known as augmentation mammoplasty — is surgery to increase breast size. It involves placing breast implants under breast tissue or chest muscles. For some women, breast augmentation is a way to feel more confident. For others, it's part of rebuilding the breast for various conditions.

Nipple Correction Surgery

Nipple correction is a surgical procedure that corrects the appearance of your nipples and addresses their natural projection. Inverted nipples are caused by an injury, breastfeeding, or are congenital (from a shortening of the breast ducts) or from diseases of the breast.

Nipple Reduction

Nipple reduction surgery reduces the projection (sticking out) of the nipple. The procedure can also decrease the circumference of the nipple as well. Nipple reductions are usually performed in conjunction with breast augmentation or breast lift, but it can be performed alone.

Nose Surgery

A nose job (technically called a rhinoplasty) is surgery on the nose to change its shape or improve its function.

Otoplasty

Otoplasty — also known as cosmetic ear surgery — is a procedure to change the shape, position or size of the ears. You might choose to have otoplasty if you're bothered by how far your ears stick out from your head. You might also consider otoplasty if your ear or ears are misshapen due to an injury or birth defect.

Pectoral Implants

Pectoral implant surgery, or pec implants as they are more commonly referred to, is a male cosmetic plastic surgery procedure that is used to improve the appearance of a man's chest. This procedure uses a safe, FDA approved soft, solid implant that is designed to increase the size and definition of the male chest.

Pectus Excavatum Treatment

Pectus excavatum is a condition in which a person's breastbone is sunken into his or her chest. Severe cases of pectus excavatum can eventually interfere with the function of the heart and lungs. Pectus excavatum is a condition in which the person's breastbone is sunken into the chest.

Perineoplasty

Perineoplasty is a surgical procedure which tightens the area between the vagina opening and the anus, the perineum. It narrows the vaginal opening.

Plastic Surgery Consultation

Plastic surgery is defined as a surgical specialty dedicated to reconstruction of facial and body defects due to birth disorders, trauma, burns, and disease.

Reconstructive Surgery for Burns

The goals of reconstructive burn surgery are to improve both the function and the cosmetic appearance of burn scars. This involves altering scar tissue, with both non-operative and operative treatment. The relationship between the burn patient and the reconstructive burn surgeon often lasts many years.

Rhinoplasty

Rhinoplasty is surgery that changes the shape of the nose. The motivation for rhinoplasty may be to change the appearance of the nose, improve breathing or both. The upper portion of the structure of the nose is bone, and the lower portion is cartilage.

Scar Removal

Scar revision is surgery to improve or reduce the appearance of scars. It also restores function, and corrects skin changes (disfigurement) caused by an injury, wound, poor healing, or previous surgery.

Sex Reassignment Surgery (Female To Male)

A metoidioplasty is a method of constructing a new penis, or neopenis. It involves changing the clitoris into a penis. A person will receive hormone therapy before the surgery to enlarge the clitoris for this purpose. During the procedure, the surgeon also removes the vagina, in a vaginectomy.

Sex Reassignment Surgery (Male to Female)

Male-to-female sex reassignment surgery involves reshaping the male genitals into a form with the appearance of, and as far as possible, the function of female genitalia.

Skin Grafting

Skin grafting is a surgical procedure that involves removing skin from one area of the body and moving it to a different area of the body. This surgery may be done if a part of your body has lost its protective covering of skin due to burns, injury, or illness. Skin grafts are performed in a hospital.

Sweat Gland Suction

Suction curettage is an outpatient procedure during which a plastic surgeon removes the sweat glands using quick suction and scraping (curettage). The surgery takes about 60 to 90 minutes, and patients return home later that day.

Thigh Lift

Thighplasty is a procedure to tighten and improve the overall appearance of thighs. Candidates for this procedure have loss of skin elasticity in the thigh or have thighs with a saggy, dimpled or flabby appearance which improves dramatically if the loose skin is lifted.

Tracheal Shave

In simple terms, a tracheal shave, medically called chondrolaryngoplasty, is a surgical procedure to reduce the size of your Adam's apple.

Tummy Tuck (Abdominoplasty)

A tummy tuck — also known as abdominoplasty — is a cosmetic surgical procedure to improve the shape and appearance of the abdomen. During a tummy tuck, excess skin and fat are removed from the abdomen. Connective tissue in the abdomen (fascia) usually is tightened with sutures as well.

Varicose Veins Treatment

Varicose veins are swollen and enlarged veins that usually occur on the legs and feet. They may be blue or dark purple, and are often lumpy, bulging or twisted in appearance. Other symptoms include: aching, heavy and uncomfortable legs.

Wrinkle Treatment

Wrinkles, especially around the eyes, mouth and neck, are common with aging as the skin in these areas gets thinner, drier and less elastic. Wrinkles, a natural part of aging, are most prominent on sun-exposed skin, such as the face, neck, hands and forearms.
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