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    Acibadem Ankara Hospital - Description

Acıbadem Ankara Hospital was opened in 2012 as a general-purpose hospital. The hospital has 103 bed capacity, a neonatal intensive care unit, and 4 operating theatres. Besides standard rooms that are qualified for the basic needs of the patient and patient relatives and include services such as internet, television, and newspaper service, there are also suites and king suites available. The hospital has an ATM, cafeteria, hairdresser, free car parking, and valet facilities. 

 Acıbadem Ankara Hospital offers services in many medical fields including oral and dental health, radiology, general surgery, gynecology, neurology, and emergency departments. The hospital also has medical technological devices such as whole-body MRI, flash CT, digital mammography, ultrasonography, and angiography as diagnostic methods. In addition, the hospital has an agreement with many private health insurance companies.

    Acibadem Ankara Hospital - Accreditations

  • ISO ISO
  • JCI JCI

    Acibadem Ankara Hospital Departments

Anesthesiology
Anesthesiology 5 Services

Epidural Pain Relief

An epidural is used for giving pain relief. It can be used during surgery to supplement a general anaesthetic, and it is continued after the operation for pain control. The nerves to your lower back pass through an area in your back close to your spine, called the 'epidural space'.

Pain Treatment

Pain medicines. physical therapies (such as heat or cold packs, massage, hydrotherapy and exercise) psychological therapies (such as cognitive behavioural therapy, relaxation techniques and meditation) mind and body techniques (such as acupuncture)

Sedation

Sedation is when drugs are given to help you feel more relaxed during a procedure. The drugs (sedatives) are usually given into your vein (intravenous or IV), but can sometimes be given by mouth (oral) or through a face mask.

Anesthetics Consultation

An anesthesia consultation, also called a pre-surgical anesthesia assessment, is a meeting between a patient and an anesthesiologist before a medical or surgical procedure.

Anesthesia

Anesthesia is the use of drugs to make surgery and other procedures painless. Anesthetics are the name for these kinds of drugs. They can be given through an injection, an inhaler, a lotion, a spray, eye drops, or a skin patch. They make it hard for you to feel or be aware of things.
Allergology
Allergology 2 Services

Allergology Consultation

An allergy consultation is a meeting with an allergist or immunologist. It could be a first meeting or a follow-up meeting. It is recommended for people who have allergy symptoms or are at risk and need treatment to keep them from getting sick.

Allergy Testing

Allergy testing finds allergens that can cause allergies, such as mold, pet dander, bee stings, and peanuts. During a skin prick test, an allergen is injected into your skin to see if it causes a wheal, rash, or other reaction. IgE antibodies can be looked for in the blood.
Bariatric Surgery
Bariatric Surgery 8 Services

Biliopancreatic Diversion with Duodenal Switch (BPD/DS)

Biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (BPD/DS) is a type of surgery to cause weight loss. It's also known as the duodenal switch. This type of bariatric surgery changes the size of your stomach and the length of your small intestine. It limits how much food you can eat, digest, and absorb.

Gastric Balloon Treatment

Intragastric balloon placement is a weight-loss procedure that involves placing a saline-filled silicone balloon in your stomach. This helps you lose weight by limiting how much you can eat and making you feel fuller faster.

Gastric Band Surgery

Gastric band surgery is a common type of weight-loss (bariatric) surgery for people who are very overweight or severely obese. It involves putting an adjustable band around the top part of your stomach, so you can't eat as much.

Gastric Bypass Surgery

Gastric bypass is surgery that helps you lose weight by changing how your stomach and small intestine handle the food you eat. After the surgery, your stomach will be smaller. You will feel full with less food. The food you eat will no longer go into some parts of your stomach and small intestine that absorb food.

Gastric Plication

Gastric plication is a minimally invasive endoscopic procedure in which the stomach is folded in on itself and sutured (stitched) to make it smaller and shorter. This procedure reduces the amount of food your stomach can hold and helps you feel full faster and stay full longer.

Gastric Sleeve

Gastric sleeve surgery is a type of weight-loss surgery. Weight-loss surgery is also called bariatric surgery. This surgery also known as sleeve gastrectomy or vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG). Gastric sleeve surgery restricts your food intake, which leads to weight loss. You may lose from 50 to 90 pounds.

Mini Gastric Bypass

The Mini Gastric Bypass (MGB) is a short, simple, successful, reversible laparoscopic gastric bypass weight loss surgery. It has been recently renamed as One Anastomosis Gastric Bypass. The operation usually takes shorter time, with lesser or similar hospital stay as regular bypass.

Bariatric Surgery Consultation

In order to assist you in losing weight, bariatric surgery, which includes the weight-loss procedures gastric bypass and other weight-loss treatments, involves making modifications to your digestive system.
Infectious Diseases
Infectious Diseases 4 Services

Hepatitis C Treatment

Hepatitis C is treated using direct-acting antiviral (DAA) tablets. DAA tablets are the safest and most effective medicines for treating hepatitis C. They're highly effective at clearing the infection in more than 90% of people. The tablets are taken for 8 to 12 weeks.

Hepatitis Consultation

Consultation with a gastroenterologist and hepatologist is recommended in the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Consultation with a psychiatrist may be helpful before and during treatment in patients at risk of depression or other psychiatric illnesses.

HIV Consultation

HIV counselling is a confidential dialogue between a client and a counsellor aimed at enabling the client to cope with stress and take personal decisions related to HIV/AIDS. The counselling process includes evaluating the personal risk of HIV transmission, and discussing how to prevent infection.

Infectious Diseases Consultation

Infectious diseases are disorders caused by organisms — such as bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites. Many organisms live in and on our bodies. They're normally harmless or even helpful. But under certain conditions, some organisms may cause disease.
Internal Medicine
Internal Medicine 1 Services

Internal Medicine Consultation

Internal medicine is a medical specialty in which physicians apply scientific knowledge and clinical expertise to diagnose and treat adults with a very broad range of health concerns and diseases. Physicians who specialize in internal medicine are called internists or general internists.
Dermatology
Dermatology 29 Services

Benign Growth Removal

Surgery is a common type of treatment for benign tumors. The goal is to remove the tumor without damaging surrounding tissues. Other types of treatment may include medication or radiation.

Cutaneous Horn Removal

If the lesion that is the underlying cause of a skin horn is benign (noncancerous), it is often treated by excision (surgical removal or resection) or with a procedure called curettage. This is a medical procedure involving the removal of tissue by scraping or scooping

Dermabrasion

Dermabrasion is a skin-resurfacing procedure that uses a rapidly rotating device to sand the outer layers of skin. Immediately after dermabrasion, treated skin will be reddish and swollen. The skin that grows back is usually smoother.

Dermatology Consultation

A dermatology consultation is a service provided by a dermatologist or dermatology clinic, sometimes for free, for patients who are seeking advice regarding existing problems that affect the skin, scalp, hair, nails, lips, and mouth, many of which can be diagnosed by a simple physical examination.

Dermoscopy

Dermoscopy or dermatoscopy refers to the examination of the skin using skin surface microscopy, and is also called 'epiluminoscopy' and 'epiluminescent microscopy'. Derm(at)oscopy is mainly used to evaluate pigmented skin lesions. In experienced hands it can make it easier to diagnose melanoma.

Excessive Sweating Treatment

Hyperhidrosis (hi-pur-hi-DROE-sis) is abnormally excessive sweating that's not necessarily related to heat or exercise. You may sweat so much that it soaks through your clothes or drips off your hands. Besides disrupting normal daily activities, this type of heavy sweating can cause social anxiety and embarrassment.

Hair and Scalp Treatment

Our scalp contains about 100,000 follicles, according to the American Academy of Dermatology Association. Like a seed sprouting a tree, each follicle contains a single hair that grows. The follicles also produce sebum, or oil, that helps keep the scalp moisturized and protects the skin from infection.

Hirsutism Treatment

Hirsutism is where women have thick, dark hair on their face, neck, chest, tummy, lower back, buttocks or thighs. See a GP if it's a problem for you. It might be caused by a medical condition that can be treated.

Ingrown Toenail Treatment

Ingrown toenails are a common condition in which the corner or side of a toenail grows into the soft flesh. The result is pain, inflamed skin, swelling and, sometimes, an infection. Ingrown toenails usually affect the big toe. Often you can take care of ingrown toenails on your own.

Melasma Treatment

Melasma is a skin condition characterized by brown or blue-gray patches or freckle-like spots. It's often called the “mask of pregnancy.” Melasma happens because of overproduction of the cells that make the color of your skin. It is common, harmless and some treatments may help.

Mesotherapy

Mesotherapy is a technique that uses injections of vitamins, enzymes, hormones, and plant extracts to rejuvenate and tighten skin, as well as remove excess fat. Michel Pistor, a doctor in France, developed the technique in 1952. It was originally used to relieve pain.

Milia Removal

The most common procedure for milia removal is de-roofing. Dermatologists use a sterile needle to remove the tiny flap of skin trapping the keratin flake inside the pore. They then squeeze or prick out the flake. A less-common practice is curettage, which is a form of electrosurgery.

Mole and Skin Lesion Evaluation

If a mole is elevated, or raised from of the skin, it should be considered suspicious. Change in color, especially multiple shades of dark brown or black; red, white and blue, Change or spreading of color from the edge of the mole into surrounding skin. Change in size, especially sudden or continuous enlargement.

Mole Removal

Mole removals, which is different than mole biopsy, is designed to completely remove moles from the skin in a way that minimizes scarring and creates a smooth, discreet finish. Moles are categorized as brown or black skin growths caused by the clustering of skin pigment cells, called melanocytes.

Nail Fungus Treatment

Nail fungus is a common condition that begins as a white or yellow spot under the tip of your fingernail or toenail. As the fungal infection goes deeper, nail fungus may cause your nail to discolor, thicken and crumble at the edge. It can affect several nails.

Photodynamic Therapy for Skin Problems

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a noninvasive treatment that utilizes light treatment along with application of a photosensitizing agent. In dermatology, PDT is commonly used and approved for the treatment of oncological conditions such as actinic keratosis, Bowen disease and superficial basal cell carcinoma.

Pigmentation Treatment

Pigmentation refers to the coloring of the skin. Skin pigmentation disorders cause changes to the color of your skin. Melanin is made by cells in the skin and is the pigment responsible for your skin's color. Hyperpigmentation is a condition that causes your skin to darken.

Psoriasis Treatment

Psoriasis is a skin disease that causes red, itchy scaly patches, most commonly on the knees, elbows, trunk and scalp. Psoriasis is a common, long-term (chronic) disease with no cure. It tends to go through cycles, flaring for a few weeks or months, then subsiding for a while or going into remission.

Rosacea Treatment

Rosacea is a common skin condition that causes blushing or flushing and visible blood vessels in your face. It may also produce small, pus-filled bumps. These signs and symptoms may flare up for weeks to months and then go away for a while.

Skin Biopsy

A skin biopsy is a procedure healthcare providers use to diagnose skin conditions. It can help identify a rash, infection, psoriasis or skin cancer. During a biopsy, your provider removes a small sample of skin tissue. In the lab, experts analyze the sample under a microscope.

Skin Lesion Removal

Skin lesion removal is a procedure or surgery to remove growths on your skin. You may have a skin lesion removed because it is too big, bothersome, or uncomfortable. Or you may have a lesion removed because it could be cancerous or precancerous. Often the doctor can remove simple skin lesions during a routine visit.

Skin Tag (Acrochordon) Removal

Skin tags are small, noncancerous growths that form when the skin rubs against itself. They typically don't require treatment. But if their appearance bothers you, you can undergo a skin tag removal procedure.

Spider Veins Treatment

Spider veins are small, damaged veins that can appear on the surface of the legs or face. They are usually not painful or harmful, but some people may wish to treat them for cosmetic reasons. Spider veins can be blue, purple, or red and may appear in the form of thin lines, webs, or branches.

Stretch Marks Removal

Stretch marks (striae) are indented streaks that appear on the abdomen, breasts, hips, buttocks or other places on the body. They're common in pregnant women, especially during the last trimester. Stretch marks aren't painful or harmful, but some people don't like the way they make their skin look.

Vitiligo Treatment

Vitiligo is a condition in which the skin loses its pigment cells (melanocytes). This can result in discolored patches in different areas of the body, including the skin, hair and mucous membranes. Vitiligo is a disease that causes loss of skin color in patches.

Warts Removal

Warts are tiny skin infections caused by viruses of the human papillomavirus (HPV) family. Although kids get warts most often, teens and adults can get them too. Sometimes warts are sexually transmitted and appear in the genital area. But most warts affect the fingers, hands, and feet.

Acne Scar Treatment

Scars left behind by acne do not vanish completely on their own. As a result of the natural breakdown of collagen that comes with aging, pitted acne scars often grow more obvious. However, there are a number of treatments available that help make the scars left behind by acne less obvious. In the course of a few months, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation or redness could gradually go away on their own.

Acne Treatment

Acne will, in the vast majority of cases, clear up on its own at the end of adolescence; nevertheless, some individuals continue to deal with acne far into adulthood. The good news is that almost all cases of acne are treatable satisfactorily. Finding a therapy that works for you is the most important thing.

Actinic Keratoses Treatment

Actinic keratoses can be taken care of by freezing the skin with liquid nitrogen. When your doctor puts the chemical directly on the affected area, it may cause your skin to blister or peel. As your wound heals, the damaged skin cells will fall off and be replaced by new, healthy skin. Cryotherapy is the most common way to treat it.
Dentistry
Dentistry 75 Services

Bone Augmentation

Bone grafting is a surgical procedure that replaces missing bone in order to repair bone fractures that are extremely complex, pose a significant health risk to the patient, or fail to heal properly.

Bone Graft

Bone grafting is a surgical procedure that uses transplanted bone to repair and rebuild diseased or damaged bones. A bone graft is a choice for repairing bones almost anywhere in your body. Your surgeon might take bone from your hips, legs, or ribs to perform the graft.

Braces

Dental braces (also known as braces, orthodontic cases, or cases) are devices used in orthodontics that align and straighten teeth and help position them with regard to a person's bite, while also aiming to improve dental health.

Bruxism Treatment

Treatments for teeth grinding (bruxism) include using mouth guards or mouth splints, and therapy.

Corticotomy-Assisted Orthodontics

Corticotomy-assisted orthodontics has been reported in a few clinical cases, and seems to be a promising adjuvant technique, indicated for many situations in the orthodontic treatment of adults without active periodontal pathology. Its main advantages are reduction of treatment time and postorthodontic stability.

Cosmetic Dentistry Consultation

Cosmetic dentistry is generally used to refer to any dental work that improves the appearance (though not necessarily the functionality) of teeth, gums and/or bite. It primarily focuses on improvement in dental aesthetics in color, position, shape, size, alignment and overall smile appearance.

Crown Lengthenin

Crown lengthening is a surgical procedure performed by a dentist, or more frequently a specialist periodontist. There are a number of reasons for considering crown lengthening in a treatment plan.

Custom Mouthguard

Getting a custom mouthguard is absolutely worth the effort and the cost at your dentist's office. This is because it better protects your teeth, is more comfortable, and allows you to breathe properly regardless of what you need to do with your mouthguard in.

Dental Bonding

Teeth bonding is a procedure in which a tooth-colored resin material (a durable plastic material) is applied and hardened with a special light, which ultimately "bonds" the material to the tooth to restore or improve a person's smile.

Dental Bridge

If you have missing teeth, your dentist can close — or bridge — the gaps in your smile with dental bridges. A dental bridge is a false tooth (called a pontic) that is held in place by the abutment teeth on either side of the gap.

Dental Checkup

Dental checkups are routine visits that consist of an examination and cleaning. Dental treatments are specialized visits to treat issues with fillings, deep teeth cleanings, root canals, teeth removal, and more. Dental treatments are scheduled on an as-needed basis, while dental checkups follow a regular schedule.

Dental Crown

In dentistry, crown refers to the anatomical area of teeth, usually covered by enamel. The crown is usually visible in the mouth after developing below the gingiva and then erupting into place. If part of the tooth gets chipped or broken, a dentist can apply an artificial crown.

Dental CT Scan

Dental cone beam computed tomography (CT) is a special type of x-ray equipment used when regular dental or facial x-rays are not sufficient. Your doctor may use this technology to produce three dimensional (3-D) images of your teeth, soft tissues, nerve pathways and bone in a single scan.

Dental Implant Bars

Implant bars are a mix between dentures and implants. Unlike common dentures, a bar is implanted in the patient's mouth, and the denture snaps onto the bar to hold it in place. These are generally made of acrylic with the higher-quality bars using natural-looking teeth and gums.

Dental Implant

A dental implant is a prosthesis that interfaces with the bone of the jaw or skull to support a dental prosthesis such as a crown, bridge, denture, or facial prosthesis or to act as an orthodontic anchor.

Dental Impression

A dental impression is a negative imprint of hard (teeth) and soft tissues in the mouth from which a positive reproduction (cast or model) can be formed. It is made by placing an appropriate material in a stock or custom dental impression tray which is designed to roughly fit over the dental arches. Impression material is of liquid or semi-solid nature when first mixed and placed in the mouth. It then sets to become an elastic solid (usually takes a few minutes depending upon the material), leaving an imprint of person's dentition and surrounding structures of oral cavity.

Dental Post and Core

Post and core is a dental restoration treatment that's sometimes performed after a root canal. When a significant portion of a tooth's structure is removed, a post and core can help keep a dental crown in place. Dental crowns are put on top of teeth, to protect them from further damage or infection.

Dental X-Rays

Dental X-rays (radiographs) are images of your teeth that your dentist uses to evaluate your oral health. These X-rays are used with low levels of radiation to capture images of the interior of your teeth and gums. This can help your dentist to identify problems, like cavities, tooth decay, and impacted teeth

Dentin Hypersensitivity Treatment

20.4. 4 Treatment of dentin hypersensitivity by laser radiation. Dentin hypersensitivity is characterized by short, sharp pain arising from exposed dentin as a response to stimuli, typically thermal, evaporative, tactile, osmotic, or chemical, which cannot be ascribed to any other form of dental defect or pathology.

Dentistry Consultation

A consultation is basically an evaluation of the current condition of your teeth. If you haven't seen a dentist in a while, you may be worried or embarrassed about the current state of your teeth. A good dentist won't be judgmental or make you feel bad about your current dental health.

Denture

Dentures are prosthetic devices constructed to replace missing teeth, and are supported by the surrounding soft and hard tissues of the oral cavity. Conventional dentures are removable.

Digital Smile Design

Digital Smile Design (DSD) is a treatment planning protocol that allows for careful analysis of the patient's facial and dental structures through state-of-the-art videography and digital technology. Today, the DSD Concept is considered the most modern, patient-centered design approach available.

Fluoride Application

Fluoride treatments are typically professional treatments containing a high concentration of fluoride that a dentist or hygienist will apply to a person's teeth to improve health and reduce the risk of cavities. These in-office treatments may take the form of a solution, gel, foam, or varnish.

Frenectomy

Frenectomy refers to the procedure that removes the connective tissue (called the frenum) at either the top or the bottom of the mouth, specifically under the tongue or the upper gums. We offer this procedure at our offices in Lynn, MA and Salem, MA.

Gingivectom

A gingivectomy refers to the removal of diseased gum tissue. A gingivoplasty procedure is typically performed to reshape otherwise healthy gum tissues. One procedure, however, is rarely performed without the other.

Gingivoplasty

GINGIVOPLASTY is the surgical reshaping of gum tissue around the teeth. It is often is done simply to make gums look better. They may have an unusual shape or may not be formed normally. The causes can include a person's genes, disease or trauma. Gingivoplasty reshapes the gums to make them look more natural.

Gnathology Treatment

Gnathology is a branch of specialized dentistry that studies and cures the masticatory system in all its anatomical and functional aspects.

Gum Tissue Graft

A gum graft is a type of dental surgery performed to correct the effects of gum recession. It is a quick and relatively simple surgery in which a periodontist removes healthy gum tissue from the roof of the mouth and uses it to build the gum back up where it has receded.

Hygienic Treatment

Hygienic is commonly used to mean clean and sanitary. It can also mean promoting good health or related to or involving hygiene—a collection of practices to promote and preserve health, or a condition involving the use of such practices.

Impacted Tooth Extraction

Wisdom tooth extraction is a surgical procedure to remove one or more wisdom teeth — the four permanent adult teeth located at the back corners of your mouth on the top and bottom.

Implant-Supported Dental Bridge

Implant-supported bridges are very similar to traditional bridges. However, instead of being supported by dental crowns placed over adjacent teeth, implant-supported bridges attach to small titanium posts embedded in the jaw. The number of posts placed will depend on the size of the bridge.

Implant-Supported Overdenture

An implant-retained overdenture is a removable dental prosthesis that is supported by the residual oral tissues and employs dental implants for retention. Implant-retained overdentures are a treatment alternative for many patients for whom conventional dentures are poorly tolerated.

Inlays/Onlays

In dentistry, inlays and onlays are a form of indirect restoration, which means they are made outside of the mouth as a single, solid piece that fits the specific size and shape of the cavity, and then cemented in place in the tooth.

Invisalign

Invisalign is an orthodontic treatment that straightens teeth without the use of metal braces. Invisalign is a series of custom-made clear braces that cover your teeth and gently pull them into the proper position over time.

Laser Treatment for Gum Disease

Laser treatment is a non-surgical gum disease treatment where the dentist uses a laser to access an infected area to destroy an infected bacteria and tissue. It is an excellent alternative to conventional gum surgery because it permits treatment without stitching or cutting and with less discomfort to the patient.

Lingual Braces

Lingual braces are one of the many types of the fixed orthodontic treatment appliances available to patients needing orthodontics.

Mini Dental Implant

Mini dental implants are a special type of tooth replacement for missing teeth. Like their full-sized counterparts, mini dental implants provide a permanent structure to replace missing teeth. While regular dental implants effectively replace missing teeth, they are not right for everyone.

Open Flap Debridement

In dentistry, open flap debridement is a periodontal procedure in which the supporting alveolar bone and root surfaces of teeth are exposed by incising the gingiva to provide increased access for scaling and root planing.

Oral Cyst Treatment

An oral cyst is a type of small growth that can occur in the mouth. It's a small fluid-filled sac that feels like a little bump. These oral cysts are sometimes referred to as mucoceles or mucous cysts. In most cases, oral cysts may feel odd, but they are harmless.

Orthodontics Consultation

Orthodontics is a branch of dentistry that treats malocclusion, a condition in which the teeth are not correctly positioned when the mouth is closed. This results in an improper bite. An orthodontist specializes in making the teeth straight.

Pediatric Dentistry

A pediatric dentist, defined, is a specially trained dentist who focuses on caring for children from infancy through the teenage years, and also adults with special needs.

Periodontal Scaling

Scaling is when your dentist removes all the plaque and tartar (hardened plaque) above and below the gumline, making sure to clean all the way down to the bottom of the pocket. Your dentist will then begin root planing, smoothing out your teeth roots to help your gums reattach to your teeth.

Periodontal Surgery

Periodontal surgery is a dental procedure to restore the look and function of teeth, gums, and bone damaged due to severe gum disease. A periodontist can help you determine if you're a candidate for surgery.

Pulpotomy

Pulpotomy is a dental procedure done to save a severely decayed tooth. It's most commonly done on children with baby teeth, but it may also be used for adults and older children who already have their permanent teeth. This procedure is used to remove infected pulp from under the tooth's crown.

Recessed Gum Treatment

Your gums fit tightly around your teeth to help anchor them into your mouth and to protect them from damage. To have receding gums means that the gum tissue surrounding your teeth has pulled back to expose more of your tooth than is normal.

Retainer

Orthodontic retainers are custom-made devices, usually made of wires or clear plastic, that hold teeth in position after surgery or any method of realigning teeth.

Root Canal Consultation

A root canal is a dental procedure involving the removal of the soft center of the tooth, the pulp. The pulp is made up of nerves, connective tissue, and blood vessels that help the tooth grow. In the majority of cases, a general dentist or endodontist will perform a root canal while you're under local anesthesia.

Root Canal

A root canal is a dental procedure involving the removal of the soft center of the tooth, the pulp. The pulp is made up of nerves, connective tissue, and blood vessels that help the tooth grow. In the majority of cases, a general dentist or endodontist will perform a root canal while you're under local anesthesia.

Root Resection

Root resection is the process by which one or more of the roots of a tooth are removed at the level of the furcation while leaving the crown and remaining roots in function.

Sandblasting

Intra-oral sandblasting or “air abrasion” involves firing a pressurised flow of “sand” at the decayed or weakened tooth surface. The weakest part of the tooth is removed first, thereby conserving as much healthy tooth structure as possible.

Scaling and Root Planing

Scaling and root planing, also known as conventional periodontal therapy, non-surgical periodontal therapy or deep cleaning, is a procedure involving removal of dental plaque and calculus (scaling or debridement) and then smoothing, or planing, of the (exposed) surfaces of the roots, removing cementum or dentine that ...

Sinus Lift

A sinus lift refers to the augmentation or lifting up of the maxillary sinus to make more room for new bone. The maxillary sinuses are air-filled cavities that are located just above the back portion of the maxilla or upper jaw.

Space Maintainer

Dental space maintainers are devices used to leave enough space open for permanent teeth to grow in after baby teeth are lost prematurely. While it might not seem like a big problem at first, not taking care of a gap can lead to expensive problems down the road.

Teeth Cleaning

During a routine dental cleaning, your hygienist uses special tools to remove sticky plaque and hard tartar deposits from the surfaces of your teeth above your gums. These cleanings are very important for preventing gum disease and even for treating very mild forms of the disease (called gingivitis).

Teeth Polishing

Dental polishing, sometimes called tooth polishing, is a cleaning method your dentist uses to keep your teeth healthy. It is used to: Smooth the surface of your teeth. Remove stains. Get rid of plaque.

Teeth Splinting

Teeth that have become loose because of lost gum tissue can benefit from a new technique called dental splinting which attaches weak teeth together, turning them into a single unit that is stable and stronger than the single teeth by themselves. The procedure is most commonly performed on the front teeth.

Teeth Whitening

Tooth whitening is any process that lightens the color of a tooth. Whitening may be accomplished by physical removal of the stain or a chemical reaction to lighten the tooth color. Bleaching is defined here as the chemical degradation of the chromogens.

Temporary Dentistry

A temporary restoration is a dental composite, bridge, crown, or filling used until permanent, restorative dental work is carried out. These temporary materials are also known as temps or provisional restorations. In some cases, dental prostheses may take some time to be created and placed.

Tooth Abscess Drainage

A dental abscess is a collection of pus that can form inside the teeth, in the gums or in the bone that holds the teeth in place. It's caused by a bacterial infection. An abscess at the end of a tooth is called a periapical abscess. An abscess in the gum is called a periodontal abscess.

Tooth Extraction

A tooth extraction is a procedure to remove a tooth from the gum socket. It is usually done by a general dentist, an oral surgeon, or a periodontist.

Tooth Filling

A tooth filling is a procedure wherein the damaged and decayed part of a tooth is removed and the area is filled with a replacement material to protect against further damage and to restore the tooth's appearance and function.

Tooth Hemisection

Hemisection is sectioning of multi-rooted teeth with its crown portion, with the loss of periodontal attachment and is performed to retain the original tooth structure and attain the fixed prosthodontic prosthesis.

Tooth Jewelry

Tooth jewelry is an adornment that is set on the front of your tooth. This style rage lets you express your uniqueness through your smile, making it progressively one of a kind and fashionable.

Tooth Reshaping

Tooth reshaping, also called dental contouring, is a cosmetic dentistry technique that removes small amounts of tooth enamel (the outer covering of the tooth) in order to change the shape, length, or surface of one or more teeth.

Tooth Sealant

Dental sealants are thin coatings that when painted on the chewing surfaces of the back teeth (molars) can prevent cavities (tooth decay) for many years. Sealants protect the chewing surfaces from cavities by covering them with a protective shield that blocks out germs and food.

Veneers

Dental veneers are thin, tooth-colored shells that are attached to the front surface of teeth to improve their appearance. They’re often made from porcelain or resin-composite materials and are permanently bonded to your teeth.

Wisdom Tooth Extraction

Wisdom tooth extraction is a surgical procedure to remove one or more wisdom teeth — the four permanent adult teeth located at the back corners of your mouth on the top and bottom.

Zygomatic Dental Implant

Zygomatic also known as 'Zygoma' provide an alternative to bone grafting procedures in the upper jaw and are dental implants that transverse inside the poor area of your upper jaw to anchor into the underside of the cheekbones through your sinuses.

Alineadent

It is invisible 3D braces made just for each patient out of a flexible material.

All-on-2

Even though the number of people who use snap-in dentures has grown a lot in recent years, they aren't likely to replace traditional dentures completely. They are a great choice for a lot of people, but others can't stand them.

All-on-4

When you get an All-on-4 implant, you don't have to replace each missing tooth separately. Instead, a dentist will use surgery to put four titanium posts into your jawbone. These will be the main anchors. Then, they can attach a permanent denture to these four spots, giving your mouth a smooth look.

All-on-6

During the All-On-6 Dental Implant procedure, six dental implants are used to create a permanent prosthesis. It is used to hold a bridge or an overdenture in place. Six implants are put into the lower or upper jawbone to hold replacement teeth in place for good.

All-on-8

All-on-8 is a dental implant procedure in which a prosthesis is attached to the jawbone. This is similar to the popular "all-on-4" method, but the prosthesis is held in place by eight dental implants instead of four.

Alveoloplasty

Alveoloplasty is a common dental procedure that is usually done after a tooth has been removed. This procedure helps restore the natural shape of the gums and jaw, which may have been lost because of bone loss after a tooth was pulled or for another reason.

Apicoectomy

An apicoectomy is a frequent dental surgery in which inflammatory gum tissue and the end of the root of the tooth are removed while the crown of the tooth is left in place. The operation is called a "apicoectomie." Because it operates on what is known as the apex, which is the end (or tip) of your root, it is sometimes referred to as a root-end resection.
Physical Therapy
Physical Therapy 2 Services

Physical Therapy Consultation

Physical therapy (PT) is care that aims to ease pain and help you function, move, and live better. You may need it to: Relieve pain. Improve movement or ability. Prevent or recover from a sports injury.

Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF)

Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) is a more advanced form of flexibility training. PNF involves both stretching and contracting (activation) of the muscle group being targeted in order to achieve maximum static flexibility.
Gastroenterology
Gastroenterology 45 Services

Bile Duct Cancer Surgery

Intrahepatic bile duct cancers are in bile ducts that are inside the liver. To treat these cancers, the surgeon cuts out the part of the liver containing the cancer. Removing part of the liver is called a partial hepatectomy. Sometimes this means that a whole lobe (right or left part) of the liver must be removed.

Cholecystectomy

A cholecystectomy (koh-luh-sis-TEK-tuh-me) is a surgical procedure to remove your gallbladder — a pear-shaped organ that sits just below your liver on the upper right side of your abdomen. Your gallbladder collects and stores bile — a digestive fluid produced in your liver.

Choledochotomy

Surgical incision of the common bile duct Patients with clonorchiasis are usually asymptomatic and treatment is limited to complications. Treatment consists of cholecystectomy, choledochotomy, and T-tube drainage.

Colonoscopy

A colonoscopy (koe-lun-OS-kuh-pee) is an exam used to detect changes or abnormalities in the large intestine (colon) and rectum. During a colonoscopy, a long, flexible tube (colonoscope) is inserted into the rectum. A tiny video camera at the tip of the tube allows the doctor to view the inside of the entire colon.

Colostomy

A colostomy is an operation to divert 1 end of the colon (part of the bowel) through an opening in the tummy. The opening is called a stoma. A pouch can be placed over the stoma to collect your poo (stools). A colostomy can be permanent or temporary.

Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, or (ERCP), is a procedure to diagnose and treat problems in the liver, gallbladder, bile ducts, and pancreas. It combines X-ray and the use of an endoscope—a long, flexible, lighted tube.

Endoscopic Ultrasound (EUS)

Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is a minimally invasive procedure to assess digestive (gastrointestinal) and lung diseases. A special endoscope uses high-frequency sound waves to produce detailed images of the lining and walls of your digestive tract and chest, nearby organs such as the pancreas and liver, and lymph nodes.

Endoscopy

Vestibular rehabilitation is an exercise-based program, designed by a specialty-trained vestibular physical therapist, to improve balance and reduce problems related to dizziness.

Esophageal Cancer Surgery

One operation used to treat esophageal cancer is esophagectomy. During esophagectomy, your surgeon removes the portion of your esophagus that contains the tumor, along with a portion of the upper part of your stomach, and nearby lymph nodes. The remaining esophagus is reconnected to your stomach.

Esophageal Diverticula Surgery

Endoscopic diverticulotomy (Dohlman procedure): This procedure divides the septum between the cervical esophagus and the diverticular pouch. By dividing the septum, food can freely drain from the pouch to the esophagus.

Esophageal Manometry

Esophageal manometry (muh-NOM-uh-tree) is a test that shows whether your esophagus is working properly. The esophagus is a long, muscular tube that connects your throat to your stomach. When you swallow, your esophagus contracts and pushes food into your stomach. Esophageal manometry measures the contractions.

Esophageal pH Monitoring

Esophageal pH monitoring is a test that measures how often stomach acid enters the tube that leads from the mouth to the stomach (called the esophagus). The test also measures how long the acid stays there.

Esophagoscopy

Esophagoscopy is a medical procedure that allows your doctor to look inside your esophagus. This procedure helps your doctor diagnose conditions that affect your esophagus. It is done using an endoscope or esophagoscope, which is a thin tube with an attached light and camera.

Gallstones Treatment

Gallstones are hardened deposits of bile that can form in your gallbladder. Bile is a digestive fluid produced in your liver and stored in your gallbladder. When you eat, your gallbladder contracts and empties bile into your small intestine (duodenum).

Gastroenterology Consultation

A gastroenterology consultation is an in-depth one-to-one meeting between you and a gastroenterologist. We ask you to describe your issue in depth, and ask you questions. We traditionally do a physical examination, and then based on our assessment make recommendations for testing and treatment.

Gastroenterostomy

A gastroenterostomy is the surgical creation of a connection between the stomach and the jejunum. The operation can sometimes be performed at the same time as a partial gastrectomy (the removal of part of the stomach).

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) Treatment

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) occurs when stomach acid frequently flows back into the tube connecting your mouth and stomach (esophagus). This backwash (acid reflux) can irritate the lining of your esophagus. Many people experience acid reflux from time to time.

Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract Biopsy

Upper GI endoscopy is a test that looks inside your upper GI (gastrointestinal) tract. This includes your food pipe (esophagus), stomach, and duodenum (the first part of your small intestine). The test is also known as EGD (esophagogastroduodenoscopy).

Gastrointestinal Perforation Repair

Treatment most often involves emergency surgery to repair the hole. Sometimes, a small part of the intestine must be removed. One end of the intestine may be brought out through an opening (stoma) made in the abdominal wall. This is called a colostomy or ileostomy.

Gastroscopy

A gastroscopy is a test to check inside your throat, food pipe (oesophagus) and stomach, known as the upper part of your digestive system. This test can help find what's causing your symptoms.

Gastrostomy

A gastrostomy is a surgical procedure used to insert a tube, often referred to as a "G-tube", through the abdomen and into the stomach. Gastrostomy is used to provide a route for tube feeding if needed for four weeks or longer, and/or to vent the stomach for air or drainage.

Hepatology Consultation

Your hepatologist will inquire about your medical history, ask you detailed questions about the symptoms you have been experiencing and any previous treatments you had for them. You should also answers questions about your lifestyle such as your diet, your exercise regimen and alcohol and drug intake.

Intra-Abdominal Adhesions Surgery

Abdominal adhesions are scar tissue that forms between abdominal tissues and organs that causes your tissues and organs to stick together. Surgery of the abdomen is the main cause of this scar tissue. You usually won't need treatment.

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Treatment

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common condition that affects the digestive system. It causes symptoms like stomach cramps, bloating, diarrhoea and constipation. These tend to come and go over time, and can last for days, weeks or months at a time. It's usually a lifelong problem

Laparoscopic Anti-Reflux (GERD) Surgery

A Nissen fundoplication is a surgery to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). During the procedure, a surgeon creates a sphincter (tightening muscle) at the bottom of the esophagus to prevent acid reflux. Most people notice a significant decrease in acid reflux symptoms after the surgery.

Liver Biopsy

A liver biopsy is a test used to diagnose liver conditions. Tissue samples are removed from your liver and checked under a microscope for signs of damage or disease. A liver biopsy can tell if there are cancer cells or other abnormal cells in your liver. It can also tell how well your liver is working.

Liver Cancer Surgery

The best option to cure liver cancer is with either surgical resection (removal of the tumor with surgery) or a liver transplant. If all cancer in the liver is completely removed, you will have the best outlook. Small liver cancers may also be cured with other types of treatment such as ablation or radiation.

Liver Disease Consultation

Liver problems that can occur include fatty liver disease and cirrhosis. The liver and its cells — as seen through a microscope — change dramatically when a normal liver becomes fatty or cirrhotic. Liver disease doesn't always cause noticeable signs and symptoms.

Liver Disease Evaluation

Liver disease diagnosis can generally be made using a carefully obtained history, physical examination, and a few laboratory tests. Initial laboratory testing should include aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and total bilirubin.

Liver Hemangioma Surgery

Surgery to remove part of the liver, including the hemangioma. In some cases, surgeons may need to remove a portion of your liver along with the hemangioma. Procedures to stop blood flow to the hemangioma. Without a blood supply, the hemangioma may stop growing or shrink.

Liver Transarterial Chemo Embolization (TACE)

Transarterial chemoembolization or TACE combines the local delivery of chemotherapy with a procedure called embolization to treat cancer, most often of the liver. It is a non-surgical and minimally invasive procedure performed in radiology, usually by an interventional radiologist.

Liver Transplant (Living Related Donor)

A living-donor liver transplant is a surgical procedure in which a portion of the liver from a healthy living person is removed and placed into someone whose liver is no longer working properly.

Meckel's Diverticulum Surgery

Meckel diverticulectomy is surgery to remove an abnormal pouch of the lining of the small intestine (bowel). This pouch is called a Meckel diverticulum.

Ostomy

(OS-toh-mee) An operation to create an opening (a stoma) from an area inside the body to the outside. Colostomy and urostomy are types of ostomies.

Pancreatectomy

Pancreatectomy is the technical name for surgery to remove all or part of the pancreas. This procedure can be used to treat conditions like pancreatic cancer and pancreatitis.

Pancreatic Cyst Treatment

Pancreatic cysts are saclike pockets of fluid on or in your pancreas. The pancreas is a large organ behind the stomach that produces hormones and enzymes that help digest food. Pancreatic cysts are typically found during imaging testing for another problem.

Pancreatitis Treatment

Pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas. It happens when digestive enzymes start digesting the pancreas itself. Pancreatitis can be acute or chronic. Either form is serious and can lead to complications. Acute pancreatitis occurs suddenly and usually goes away in a few days with treatment.

Peptic Ulcer Treatment

Ulcers. A peptic ulcer is a sore on the lining of your stomach, small intestine or esophagus. A peptic ulcer in the stomach is called a gastric ulcer. A duodenal ulcer is a peptic ulcer that develops in the first part of the small intestine (duodenum). An esophageal ulcer occurs in the lower part of your esophagus.

Polypectomy

A polypectomy is the surgical removal of a polyp. Colon polyps can be removed through open abdominal surgery, but more commonly it is performed during a colonoscopy. The endoscopist may snip off a small polyp with a forceps or remove a larger polyp with a snare that burns through the base of the polyp.

Sigmoidoscopy

A sigmoidoscopy is a diagnostic test used to check the sigmoid colon, which is the lower part of your colon or large intestine. This section of your colon is close to your rectum and anus. A sigmoidoscopy can help diagnose the following symptoms: Diarrhea.

Stomach Cancer Surgery

Surgery. Surgery is a common treatment of all stages of gastric cancer. The following types of surgery may be used: Subtotal gastrectomy: Removal of the part of the stomach that contains cancer, nearby lymph nodes, and parts of other tissues and organs near the tumor. The spleen may be removed.

Surgery for Benign Liver Tumors

Surgery for benign liver tumors requires removing the tumor completely. This is called a liver resection. Occasionally this can be done in a minimally invasive fashion. The portion of liver that needs to be removed is determined based on the location of the tumor.

Surgery for Cholecystitis

Most people with the condition eventually need surgery to remove the gallbladder. Gallbladder removal surgery is called a cholecystectomy. Usually, this is a minimally invasive procedure, involving a few tiny incisions in your abdomen (laparoscopic cholecystectomy).

Surgery for Liver Cysts

Simple liver cysts are fluid-filled cavities in the liver. Usually, they cause no signs or symptoms and need no treatment. However, they may become large enough to cause pain or discomfort in the upper right part of the abdomen. Most liver cysts can be detected on ultrasound or computerized tomography (CT) scans.

Urea Breath Test

This test examines your breath for the presence of Helicobacter pylori bacteria, which can cause gastritis (inflammation of the mucous membrane of the stomach) or ulcers in the stomach and small intestine. The test is a painless and non-invasive procedure that takes about 20 minutes.
General Surgery
General Surgery 26 Services

Breast Abscess Drainage

Treatment for a breast abscess involves draining the area of pus. First, your doctor will numb your skin with a local anesthetic so you don't feel any pain. Then, they'll remove the pus by either making a small incision and physically draining the abscess, or by removing the pus via a needle.

Breast Lumpectomy

Lumpectomy is a surgical removal of a discrete portion or "lump" of breast tissue, usually in the treatment of a malignant tumor or breast cancer.

Breast Tumor Removal

Lumpectomy (lum-PEK-tuh-me) is surgery to remove cancer or other abnormal tissue from your breast. During a lumpectomy procedure, the surgeon removes the cancer or other abnormal tissue and a small amount of the healthy tissue that surrounds it. This ensures that all of the abnormal tissue is removed.

Cervical Sympathectomy

A cervical sympathectomy is surgery to destroy or remove nerves in your neck. The surgery is mainly used to treat hyperhidrosis (heavy sweating) in the armpits or on the hands.

Cyst Removal

The removal of a cyst refers to any procedure used to remove an abnormal soft tissue growth or pocket of fluid that forms in various parts of the body. There are several types of cyst removal procedures performed depending on the type of cyst, its size, and its location.

Diagnostic Laparoscopy

Diagnostic laparoscopy is a procedure that allows a doctor to look directly at the contents of the abdomen or pelvis.

Gastrectomy

Gastrectomy is surgery to remove part or all of the stomach. If only part of the stomach is removed, it is called partial gastrectomy. If the whole stomach is removed, it is called total gastrectomy.

General Surgery Consultation

Surgery consultation, which is an essential part of any surgical procedure, involves making an assessment as to whether the patient is fit to undergo surgery and if the benefits of the procedure outweigh the risk.

Hernia Repair

Open hernia repair is where an incision, or cut, is made in the groin. The hernia “sac” containing the bulging intestine is identified. The surgeon then pushes the hernia back into the abdomen and strengthens the abdominal wall with stitches or synthetic mesh.

Incisional Hernia Repair

In this surgical procedure, also known as herniorrhaphy, the surgeon makes an incision in the abdomen above the hernia, pushes any protruding intestine back into the abdomen and repairs the opening in the muscle wall.

Laparoscopy

Laparoscopy is a type of surgical procedure that allows a surgeon to access the inside of the abdomen (tummy) and pelvis without having to make large incisions in the skin. This procedure is also known as keyhole surgery or minimally invasive surgery.

Laparotomy

A laparotomy is a surgical incision into the abdominal cavity. A laparotomy is performed to examine the abdominal organs and aid diagnosis of any problems. Possible complications include infection and the formation of scar tissue within the abdominal cavity.

Lipoma Removal

Most lipomas are removed surgically by cutting them out. Recurrences after removal are uncommon. Possible side effects are scarring and bruising. A technique known as minimal excision extraction may result in less scarring. Liposuction.

Liver Resection

Liver resection is the removal of part of the liver during an operation. The body can cope with removal of up to two-thirds of the liver. The liver also has the ability to grow back. Within 3 months of your operation, the remainder of your liver will have grown back to near normal size.

Lymph Node Biopsy

A lymph node biopsy is the removal of lymph node tissue for examination under a microscope. The lymph nodes are small glands that make white blood cells (lymphocytes), which fight infection. Lymph nodes may trap the germs that are causing an infection. Cancer can spread to lymph nodes.

Lymph Nodes Removal

Lymph node removal is a surgical procedure to take out one or more of your lymph nodes. Your doctor may recommend you have this procedure if you've been diagnosed with cancer. There are two main reasons for removing lymph nodes. If you have cancer, one or more lymph nodes may be removed to check whether it has spread.

Nephrectomy

Kidney removal, or nephrectomy, is surgery to remove all or part of a kidney. It may involve: Part of one kidney removed (partial nephrectomy). All of one kidney removed (simple nephrectomy). Removal of one entire kidney, surrounding fat, and the adrenal gland (radical nephrectomy).

Omentectomy

The benefit of an omentectomy is to remove cancer if it's spread to the omentum or to help stage the cancer to determine the most beneficial treatment. Cancer surgeries, such as an omentectomy, can cause side effects including temporary tenderness or pain.

Pleurodesis

Pleurodesis is a procedure that sticks your lung to your chest wall. This procedure removes the space between your lung and your chest wall (pleural space) so that fluid or air no longer builds up between the layers.

Robotic Surgery

Robotic surgery, or robot-assisted surgery, allows doctors to perform many types of complex procedures with more precision, flexibility and control than is possible with conventional techniques. Robotic surgery is usually associated with minimally invasive surgery — procedures performed through tiny incisions.

Splenectomy

A splenectomy is surgery to remove the entire spleen, a delicate, fist-sized organ that sits under the left rib cage near the stomach. The spleen is an important part of the body's defense (immune) system. It contains special white blood cells that destroy bacteria and help the body fight infections when you are sick.

Thoracostomy

Thoracostomy is a minimally invasive procedure in which a doctor inserts a thin plastic tube into the pleural space — the area between the chest wall and lungs. They may attach the tube to a suction device to remove excess fluid or air. Or, they may use the chest tube to deliver medications into the pleural space.

Umbilical Hernia Repair

During umbilical hernia repair, the surgeon makes a small cut of about 2 to 3cm at the base of the belly button and pushes the fatty lump or loop of bowel back into the tummy. The muscle layers at the weak spot in the abdominal wall where the hernia came through are stitched together to strengthen them.

Adrenalectomy

Surgical removal of either one or both of the adrenal glands is referred to as an adrenalectomy. Above each of your kidneys is a little gland called an adrenal gland. Your adrenal glands generate hormones that govern your metabolism, immunological system, blood pressure, and blood sugar.

After Surgery Care

Following any kind of medical procedure, you can expect to have some side effects. Surgery will almost always include some degree of discomfort. There is also a possibility that the place where the surgeon sliced would experience swelling as well as pain. Your surgeon will be able to provide you with information on the possible adverse effects.

Appendectomy

An appendectomy is surgery that removes an infected appendix. This problem is called appendicitis. A common emergency surgery is appendectomy. The appendix is a small pouch connected to the large intestine. 
General Medicine
General Medicine 16 Services

Bone Marrow Transplant

Bone marrow transplant (BMT) is a special therapy for patients with certain cancers or other diseases. A bone marrow transplant involves taking cells that are normally found in the bone marrow (stem cells), filtering those cells, and giving them back either to the donor (patient) or to another person.

Cryosurgery

Cryosurgery is a type of surgery that involves the use of extreme cold to destroy abnormal tissues, such as tumors. The surgery most often involves the use of liquid nitrogen, although carbon dioxide and argon may also be used.

Deep Wound Treatment

An open wound is an injury involving an external or internal break in body tissue, usually involving the skin. Nearly everyone will experience an open wound at some point in their life. Most open wounds are minor and can be treated at home.

Doctor Consultation

Medical consultation means a consultation which takes place between an employee and a licensed physician for the purpose of determining what medical examinations or procedures, if any, are appropriate in cases where a significant exposure to a hazardous chemical may have taken place.

Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy (ESWT)

Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy (ESWT), sometimes referred to as EPAT Therapy or simply “Shockwave,” is a non-invasive therapy used to treat pain and promote healing by delivering high-energy sound waves to injured or damaged tissue during short treatment sessions.

Follow-Up Check

(FAH-loh-up kayr) Care given to a patient over time after finishing treatment for a disease. Follow-up care involves regular medical checkups, which may include a physical exam, blood tests, and imaging tests.

General Medicine Consultation

Also referred to as a medical consultation, a general consultation is a meeting between a physician and a patient.

Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia (HSP) Treatment

Hereditary spastic paraplegia is a general term for a group of rare inherited disorders that cause weakness and stiffness in the leg muscles. Symptoms gradually get worse over time. It's also known as familial spastic paraparesis or Strümpell-Lorrain syndrome.

Hyperbaric Medicine

Hyperbaric medicine is medical treatment in which an ambient pressure greater than sea level atmospheric pressure is a necessary component.

Lumbar Puncture

A lumbar puncture (spinal tap) is performed in your lower back, in the lumbar region. During a lumbar puncture, a needle is inserted between two lumbar bones (vertebrae) to remove a sample of cerebrospinal fluid. This is the fluid that surrounds your brain and spinal cord to protect them from injury.

Male Health Checkup

A men's health check is a screening service that can detect the early warning signs of a range of health conditions affecting men, such as diabetes and prostate cancer. Using the results of these health tests, specialists can build a clear picture of what your current health is like and identify any future risks.

Medical Examination

The medical examination will include a medical history review, physical examination, chest X-ray and blood tests for syphilis. The physical examination will at least include examination of the eyes, ears, nose and throat, extremities, heart, lungs, abdomen, lymph nodes and skin.

Medical Report

A medical report is a comprehensive report that covers a person's clinical history. A medical report is a vital piece of evidence that can validate and support your claim for Social Security Disability benefits.

Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) Injection

Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapy uses injections of a concentration of a patient's own platelets to accelerate the healing of injured tendons, ligaments, muscles and joints. In this way, PRP injections use each individual patient's own healing system to improve musculoskeletal problems.

Vaccination

Vaccination is a simple, safe, and effective way of protecting you against harmful diseases, before you come into contact with them. It uses your body's natural defenses to build resistance to specific infections and makes your immune system stronger.

Abdominal Examination

An examination of the patient's abdomen, which is referred to as an abdominal examination, is a component of the patient's overall physical examination that is performed by a medical professional or a nurse to look for indications of illness in the patient's abdominal region.
Pulmonology
Pulmonology 14 Services

Bronchoscopy

Bronchoscopy is a procedure that lets doctors look at your lungs and air passages. It's usually performed by a doctor who specializes in lung disorders (a pulmonologist). During bronchoscopy, a thin tube (bronchoscope) is passed through your nose or mouth, down your throat and into your lungs.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Treatment

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammatory lung disease that causes obstructed airflow from the lungs. Symptoms include breathing difficulty, cough, mucus (sputum) production and wheezing.

Cystic Fibrosis Treatment

Lung infections are treated with antibiotics which may be given intravenously, inhaled, or by mouth. Sometimes, the antibiotic azithromycin is used long term. Inhaled hypertonic saline and salbutamol may also be useful.

Lung Biopsy

A biopsy is a procedure performed to remove tissue or cells from the body for examination under a microscope. A lung biopsy is a procedure in which samples of lung tissue are removed (with a special biopsy needle or during surgery) to determine if lung disease or cancer is present.

Lung Fluid Drainage

Thoracentesis is a procedure to remove fluid or air from around the lungs. A needle is put through the chest wall into the pleural space. The pleural space is the thin gap between the pleura of the lung and of the inner chest wall.

Lung Function Test

Spirometry is a simple test used to help diagnose and monitor certain lung conditions by measuring how much air you can breathe out in one forced breath. It's carried out using a device called a spirometer, which is a small machine attached by a cable to a mouthpiece.

Lung Volume Reduction Surgery

Lung volume reduction surgery is used to improve breathing in some people with severe emphysema, a type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). During surgery, small wedges of damaged lung tissue are removed to allow the remaining tissue to function better.

Pneumonectomy

A pneumonectomy is a type of surgery to remove one of your lungs because of cancer, trauma, or some other condition. You have two lungs: a right lung and a left lung. These lungs connect to your mouth through a series of tubes.

Pulmonary Rehablitation

Pulmonary rehabilitation is the use of exercise, education, and behavioral intervention to improve how people with chronic lung disease function in daily life and to enhance their quality of life. Pulmonary rehabilitation is a program designed for people who have chronic lung disease.

Pulmonology Consultation

Listen to pronunciation. (PUL-muh-NAH-loh-jee) A branch of medicine that specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases of the lungs and other parts of the respiratory system. These diseases include asthma, emphysema, tuberculosis, and pneumonia.

Respiratory Medicine Consultation

Doctors working in respiratory medicine diagnose and treat conditions affecting the respiratory system, which includes the nose, throat, larynx, windpipe, lungs and the diaphragm.

Thoracentesis

Thoracentesis is a procedure to remove fluid or air from around the lungs. A needle is put through the chest wall into the pleural space. The pleural space is the thin gap between the pleura of the lung and of the inner chest wall.

Thoracoscopy / Pleuroscopy

Thoracoscopy (pleuroscopy) involves passage of an endoscope through the chest wall for direct visualization of the pleura. Medical thoracoscopy is most commonly used for pleural fluid drainage, parietal pleural biopsy, and pleurodesis.

Tuberculosis (TB) Treatment

Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The bacteria usually attack the lungs, but TB bacteria can attack any part of the body such as the kidney, spine, and brain. Not everyone infected with TB bacteria becomes sick.
Gynecology
Gynecology 56 Services

Breast Biopsy

A breast biopsy is a procedure to remove a sample of breast tissue for testing. The tissue sample is sent to a lab, where doctors who specialize in analyzing blood and body tissue (pathologists) examine the tissue sample and provide a diagnosis

Breast Exam

A breast self-exam for breast awareness is an inspection of your breasts that you do on your own. To help increase your breast awareness, you use your eyes and hands to determine if there are any changes to the look and feel of your breasts.

Cardiotocography (CTG)

Cardiotocography is a technique used to monitor the fetal heartbeat and the uterine contractions during pregnancy and labour. The machine used to perform the monitoring is called a cardiotocograph.

Cervical Biopsy

A cervical biopsy is a surgical procedure in which a small amount of tissue is removed from the cervix. The cervix is the lower, narrow end of the uterus located at the end of the vagina. A cervical biopsy is usually done after an abnormality has been found during a routine pelvic exam or Pap smear.

Cervical Cautery

Cervical Cauterization is a procedure wherein heat (or diathermy) is used for treating the cells on the neck of the cervix. This procedure causes delicate, easily broken cells to grow into newer, healthy and strong cells which are unlikely to result in discharge or irregular bleeding.

Cervical Cerclage

Cervical cerclage is a medical procedure in which your doctor places a single stitch around your cervix, the opening to your uterus. The stitch sews your cervix closed. Doctors perform cerclage to prevent late (second trimester) miscarriages and preterm (early) delivery.

Cervical Conization

Cervical conization (CPT codes 57520 (Cold Knife) and 57522 (Loop Excision)) refers to an excision of a cone-shaped sample of tissue from the mucous membrane of the cervix. Conization may be used for either diagnostic purposes as part of a biopsy or therapeutic purposes to remove pre-cancerous cells.

Cervical Polyp Removal

Cervical polyps are removed with an instrument called polyp forceps. They are used to grasp the base of the polyp and the polyp is removed with a gentle twisting motion. Occasionally, if the doctor or nurse cannot see the base of the polyp, a procedure called hysteroscopy is performed.

Cesarean Section

Cesarean section, C-section, or Cesarean birth is the surgical delivery of a baby through a cut (incision) made in the mother's abdomen and uterus. Healthcare providers use it when they believe it's safer for the mother, the baby, or both. The incision made in the skin may be: Up-and-down (vertical).

Colposcopy

Colposcopy (kol-POS-kuh-pee) is a procedure to closely examine your cervix, vagina and vulva for signs of disease. During colposcopy, your doctor uses a special instrument called a colposcope. Your doctor may recommend colposcopy if your Pap test result is abnormal.

Contraceptive Implant

The contraceptive implant (Nexplanon) is a small flexible plastic rod that's placed under the skin in your upper arm by a doctor or nurse.

Cystocele Repair

A cystocele repair is a surgery to put your bladder back in its normal place. Your surgeon will fix the wall between your bladder and vagina to keep your bladder from moving again.

Dilation and Curettage

Dilation and curettage refers to the dilation of the cervix and surgical removal of part of the lining of the uterus and/or contents of the uterus by scraping and scooping.

Endometrial Ablation

Endometrial ablation is a procedure that surgically destroys (ablates) the lining of your uterus (endometrium). The goal of endometrial ablation is to reduce menstrual flow. In some women, menstrual flow may stop completely. No incisions are needed for endometrial ablation.

Endometrial Biopsy

In an endometrial biopsy, a small piece of tissue from the lining of the uterus (the endometrium) is removed and examined under a microscope for cancer and other cell irregularities. The procedure helps find the cause of a woman's heavy or irregular bleeding.

Episiotomy Repair

An episiotomy should be repaired promptly to reduce blood loss and prevent infection. Repair of an episiotomy is undertaken in three stages: repair of the vaginal mucosa, repair of the muscle layer and repair of the skin layer. Adequate pain relief should be provided before suturing.

Female Sterilization

Sterilization (sometimes called female sterilization, tubal ligation, or “getting your tubes tied”) is a safe and effective surgical procedure that permanently prevents pregnancy.

Fetal Medicine Consultation

Consultation: Patients are often referred to maternal-fetal medicine for consultation due to a medical condition that may complicate their pregnancy. Often, patients referred for consultation continue their prenatal care with their doctor or midwife.

Fetal Surgery

Fetal surgery is a procedure performed on an unborn baby (fetus) in the uterus (in utero) to help improve the long-term outcome of children with specific birth defects.

Four Dimensional (4D) Ultrasound

4D is the fourth dimension in ultrasound when a 3D image has another dimension; time. 4D is the latest ultrasound technology. It takes many conventional 2D images, creates a surface rendered 3D image, and adds time to the process. The result is realistic live action images of your unborn child.

Gynecologic Laparoscopy

A gynaecological laparoscopy (keyhole surgery) is a procedure to look inside your lower tummy (abdomen) to examine your womb (uterus), fallopian tubes and ovaries. Gynaecological laparoscopy can be used to diagnose a condition and/or to treat it.

Gynecology Checkup

A gyn checkup is a yearly health check — like a regular eye exam or dental checkup. Doctors often call gyn checkups "well woman visits" because they're designed to keep you healthy by catching small issues before they turn into big ones.

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine

A vaccine that helps protect the body against infection with certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV infection can cause abnormal tissue growth, such as warts, and other changes to cells.

Hymenotomy

A hymenectomy (sometimes referred to as hymenotomy) is a surgical procedure where an opening is created in the hymen. It is often used when a person has a hymen that is abnormally thick, septate, or otherwise obstructing the flow of menstruation (imperforate hymen).

Hysterectomy

A hysterectomy is a surgical procedure to remove the womb (uterus). You'll no longer be able to get pregnant after the operation. If you have not already gone through the menopause, you'll no longer have periods, regardless of your age. Many women have a hysterectomy. It's more common for women aged 40 to 50.

Hysteroscopy

A hysteroscopy is a procedure used to examine the inside of the womb (uterus). It's carried out using a hysteroscope, which is a narrow telescope with a light and camera at the end. Images are sent to a monitor so your doctor or specialist nurse can see inside your womb.

Hysterosonography

What is a Hysterosonogram? Hysterosonography, also called Sonohysterography or Saline Infusion Sonography, is a minimally invasive Ultrasound exam that provides images of the inside of the uterus to help diagnose the cause of abnormal vaginal bleeding.

Intrauterine Device (IUD) Placement

IUDs are shaped like a T, with one arm on either side. The doctor will fold down the arms and place the device into an applicator tube, then insert the tube through your cervix into your uterus. Once the IUD is in place, the arms will release and the doctor will remove the applicator tube.

Intrauterine Device (IUD) Removal

The IUD is removed by securely grasping the threads at the external os with ring forceps. Traction should be applied away from the cervix. If resistance is met, the removal should be abandoned until it is determined why the IUD is not moving. A deeply embedded IUD may have to be removed hysteroscopically.

Menopause Checkup

This is a home-use test kit to measure Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) in your urine. This may help indicate if you are in menopause or perimenopause.

Microdochectomy

A Microdochectomy is a surgical procedure in which a single duct is removed from the nipple areolar complex. It is usually undertaken when a patient has nipple discharge from a single duct. The patient will be asked not squeeze the nipple before attending the operating theatre.

Myomectomy

Myomectomy (my-o-MEK-tuh-me) is a surgical procedure to remove uterine fibroids — also called leiomyomas (lie-o-my-O-muhs). These common noncancerous growths appear in the uterus. Uterine fibroids usually develop during childbearing years, but they can occur at any age.

Oophorectomy

An oophorectomy (oh-of-uh-REK-tuh-me) is a surgical procedure to remove one or both of your ovaries. Your ovaries are almond-shaped organs that sit on each side of the uterus in your pelvis. Your ovaries contain eggs and produce hormones that control your menstrual cycle.

Ovarian Transposition Surgery

A procedure used to help keep a woman fertile by preventing damage to the ovaries during radiation therapy. Before radiation therapy begins, one or both ovaries and fallopian tubes are separated from the uterus and attached to the wall of the abdomen away from where the radiation will be given.

Ovarian Tumor Removal

The first goal of ovarian cancer surgery is to stage the cancer − to see how far the cancer has spread from the ovary. Usually this means removing the uterus (this operation is called a hysterectomy), along with both ovaries and fallopian tubes (this is called a bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy or BSO).

Pelvic Adhesiolysis

Hysteroscopic adhesiolysis is a surgery that removes adhesions from inside the uterus. Adhesions can cause pain and complications with pregnancy. Having adhesions in the uterus is also called Asherman syndrome.

Pelvic Exam

Pelvic exam. A doctor or nurse inserts one or two lubricated, gloved fingers of one hand into the vagina and presses on the lower abdomen with the other hand. This is done to feel the size, shape, and position of the uterus and ovaries. The vagina, cervix, fallopian tubes, and rectum are also checked. Enlarge.

Pelvic Floor Electrical Stimulator

During pelvic floor electrical stimulation, a low-grade electrical current (similar to “TENS” units used in physical therapy) stimulates the muscles to contract creating a muscular response similar to Kegels (an exercise for your pelvic floor muscles).

Pelvic Floor Repair

A pelvic floor repair is the most common surgery for prolapse. It is a broad term used to describe simple surgical repairs of the pelvic floor. More specifically, the term anterior repair refers to correction of the front wall of the vagina; and posterior repair refers to correction of the back wall of the vagina.

Pessary Placement

A pessary is a prosthetic device that can be inserted into the vagina to support its internal structure. It's often used in the case of urinary incontinence and a vaginal or pelvic organ prolapse. A prolapse occurs when the vagina or another organ in the pelvis slips out of its usual place.

Pregnancy Ultrasound

A pregnancy ultrasound is an imaging test that uses sound waves to create a picture of how a baby is developing in the womb. It is also used to check the female pelvic organs during pregnancy.

Prenatal Testing

Prenatal screening tests can identify whether your baby is more or less likely to have certain birth defects, many of which are genetic disorders. These tests include blood tests, a specific type of ultrasound and prenatal cell-free DNA screening.

Screening for Down Syndrome (Triple Test)

The triple screen measures serum hCG, AFP and unconjugated estriol to calculate the risk of Down syndrome and can detect up to 69% of Down syndrome pregnancies. Currently, the quadruple test, usually performed at 15-18 weeks' gestation, is the most common screening test performed in the second trimester.

Tubal Ligation Reversal

A tubal ligation reversal is a procedure to reverse a tubal ligation — when the fallopian tubes are cut or blocked to permanently prevent pregnancy. During a tubal ligation reversal, your doctor removes the obstructed area of the fallopian tubes and reattaches the fallopian tubes to allow pregnancy.

Uterine Artery Embolization (UAE)

Uterine artery embolization (UAE) is a procedure to treat fibroids without surgery. Uterine fibroids are noncancerous (benign) tumors that develop in the uterus (womb). During the procedure, the blood supply to the fibroids is cut off. This typically causes the fibroids to shrink.

Uterine Prolapse Surgery

Hysterectomy and prolapse repair: Uterine prolapse may be treated by removing the uterus in a surgical procedure called a hysterectomy. This may be done through a cut (incision) made in the vagina (vaginal hysterectomy) or through the abdomen (abdominal hysterectomy).

Uterosacral Nerve Ablation

Laparoscopic uterine nerve ablation (LUNA) involves the destruction of a small segment of ligament that carries nerve fibres within the pelvis.

Vaginal Childbirth

A vaginal delivery is the birth of offspring in mammals (babies in humans) through the vagina (also called the "birth canal"). It is the most common method of childbirth worldwide.

Vaginal Vault Prolapse Surgery

Vaginal vault prolapse is descent of the vaginal apex (after hysterectomy) into the lower vagina, to the hymenal ring, or through the vaginal introitus.

Vaginectomy

Vaginectomy is a surgery to remove all or part of the vagina. It is usually used as a treatment for vaginal cancer.

Vaginismus Treatment

Vaginismus is the body's automatic reaction to the fear of some or all types of vaginal penetration. Whenever penetration is attempted, your vaginal muscles tighten up on their own. You have no control over it. Occasionally, you can get vaginismus even if you have previously enjoyed painless penetrative sex.

Vaginoplasty

Vaginoplasty is a procedure to construct or repair a vagina. It treats various medical issues, including vaginal injury due to childbirth and pelvic floor disease complications. It's also for creating a transgender vagina, which helps individuals achieve their preferred gender identity.

Vulval Biopsy

A vulva biopsy is when a doctor takes a small sample of tissue from an abnormal area of the vulva. They send this to a laboratory to be examined under a microscope. A biopsy can help to diagnose vulval cancer.

Amniocentesis

Amniocentesis is a procedure in which amniotic fluid is removed from the uterus for testing or treatment. Amniotic fluid is the fluid that surrounds and protects a baby during pregnancy. This fluid contains fetal cells and various proteins.

Antenatal Care (ANC)

Antenatal care is the care you get from a doctor or nurse before you have your baby. It can also be called maternity care or care for pregnant women. You will be given appointments with a midwife or, sometimes, a doctor who specializes in pregnancy and childbirth.

Bartholin's Cyst Treatment

Both sides of the vaginal entrance are home to a pair of glands. These glands produce fluid that contributes to keeping the vaginal tract moist. Bartholin's cyst is an enlargement of one of these glands caused by blocked or partially blocked entrances, which is usually painless.
Cardiology
Cardiology 64 Services

Bentall Procedure

The Bentall procedure is a surgery to replace part of the aorta and the aortic valve of the heart because of a bulge (aneurysm) in the aorta. The aorta is the large blood vessel (artery) that carries blood from the heart through the chest and belly to the rest of the body.

Blalock–Taussig Shunt (BT Shunt)

The Blalock–Thomas–Taussig shunt is a surgical procedure used to increase blood flow to the lungs in some forms of congenital heart disease. These conditions, in which a child is born with an abnormal heart include pulmonary atresia and Tetralogy of Fallot and are common causes of blue baby syndrome.

Cardiac Amyloidosis Treatment

Some of the common types of chemotherapy used to treat amyloidosis are cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan, Neosar) and melphalan (Alkeran) combined with the steroids dexamethasone (multiple brand names) and prednisone (multiple brand names).

Cardiac Assessment

A focused assessment of the cardiac system includes a review for common or concerning symptoms: Chest pain—assess location, when it occurs, intensity, type, duration, with or without exertion, radiation, associated symptoms (shortness of breath, sweating, nausea, palpitations, anxiety), and alleviating factors.

Cardiac CT

A computerized tomography (CT) coronary angiogram is an imaging test that looks at the arteries that supply blood to your heart. It might be done to diagnose the cause of chest pain or other symptoms. A CT coronary angiogram uses a powerful X-ray machine to produce images of your heart and its blood vessels.

Cardiac MRI

Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to produce detailed pictures of the structures within and around the heart. Doctors use cardiac MRI to detect or monitor cardiac disease.

Cardiac Rehabilitation

Cardiac rehab, or cardiac rehabilitation, is a medically supervised program that includes exercise, support, counseling and education. This comprehensive program helps you recover from a heart attack or other heart problem. It offers many benefits that can improve your health and quality of life.

Cardiac Resynchronisation Therapy (CRT) Device Implantation

Cardiac resynchronization therapy requires a minor surgical procedure to implant a device in the chest. You'll likely be awake during the procedure, but will receive medication to help you relax. The area where the pacemaker is implanted is numbed. The procedure typically takes a few hours.

Cardioversion

Cardioversion is a medical procedure that restores a normal heart rhythm in people with certain types of abnormal heartbeats (arrhythmias). Cardioversion is usually done by sending electric shocks to your heart through electrodes placed on your chest. It's also possible to do cardioversion with medications.

Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) Surgery

A coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) is a surgical procedure used to treat coronary heart disease. It diverts blood around narrowed or clogged parts of the major arteries to improve blood flow and oxygen supply to the heart.

Coronary Steal Treatment

Coronary artery disease (CAD) causes impaired blood flow in the arteries that supply blood to the heart. Also called coronary heart disease (CHD), CAD is the most common form of heart disease and affects approximately 16.5 millionTrusted Source Americans over the age of 20

Cryoablation for Atrial Fibrillation

Doctors perform cryoablation to restore normal heart rhythm by disabling heart cells that create an irregular heartbeat. During this minimally invasive procedure, a thin flexible tube called a balloon catheter is used to locate and freeze the heart tissue that triggers an irregular heartbeat.

Diastolic Heart Failure Treatment

The pharmacologic therapies of choice for diastolic heart failure are angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, diuretics, and beta blockers.

Dobutamine Stress Echocardiogram

A dobutamine stress echocardiogram (DSE) may be used if you are unable to exercise. Dobutamine is put in a vein and causes the heart to beat faster. It mimics the effects of exercise on the heart. During an echo, a transducer (like a microphone) sends out ultrasonic sound waves at a frequency too high to be heard.

Dressler's Syndrome Treatment

The main treatment for Dressler syndrome is medication to reduce inflammation. Your doctor may recommend nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as: Aspirin. Ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others)

Echocardiogram

An echocardiogram, or "echo", is a scan used to look at the heart and nearby blood vessels. It's a type of ultrasound scan, which means a small probe is used to send out high-frequency sound waves that create echoes when they bounce off different parts of the body.

Eisenmenger's Syndrome Treatment

Sildenafil (Revatio, Viagra) and tadalafil (Cialis, Adcirca) are sometimes used to treat high blood pressure in your pulmonary arteries caused by Eisenmenger syndrome. These drugs work by opening the blood vessels in the lungs to allow blood to flow through more easily.

Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG)

An electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) records the electrical signal from the heart to check for different heart conditions. Electrodes are placed on the chest to record the heart's electrical signals, which cause the heart to beat. The signals are shown as waves on an attached computer monitor or printer.

Electrophysiology Study (EPS)

An electrophysiology (EP) study — also called invasive cardiac electrophysiology — is a series of tests that examine the heart's electrical activity. The heart's electrical system produces signals (impulses) that control the timing of the heartbeats.

Endocarditis Treatment

Endocarditis is treated with a course of antibiotics given via a drip. You'll need to be admitted to hospital for this. Some people also need surgery to repair or replace a damaged heart valve or drain away any abscesses that develop. Endocarditis is a serious illness, especially if complications develop.

Fontan Procedure

During a Fontan surgery, congenital heart surgeons reroute the blood flow from the lower body to the lungs by connecting the inferior vena cava to the pulmonary artery. To accomplish this, surgeons will most often create a connecting channel, or tube, outside of the heart.

Glenn Shunt

Glenn shunt procedures involve the anastomosis of the superior vena cava to the right pulmonary artery to increase pulmonary blood flow in patients with cyanotic heart disease.

High Output Heart Failure Treatment

High-output heart failure is a heart condition that occurs when the cardiac output is higher than normal due to increased peripheral demand. There is a circulatory overload which may lead to pulmonary edema secondary to an elevated diastolic pressure in the left ventricle.

Hypertension Treatment

Hypertension is another name for high blood pressure. It can lead to severe health complications and increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and sometimes death. Blood pressure is the force that a person's blood exerts against the walls of their blood vessels.

Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD) Implantation

An implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) is a small battery-powered device placed in the chest to detect and stop irregular heartbeats (arrhythmias). An ICD continuously monitors the heartbeat and delivers electric shocks, when needed, to restore a regular heart rhythm.

Intra-Aortic Balloon Pump Insertion

IABP therapy involves inserting the balloon-tipped catheter into a blood vessel and advancing it to the heart. Usually, this happens during a heart-related surgery. In an emergency, a medical team may insert it at your bedside.

Keshan Disease Treatment

Keshan disease is an endemic cardiomyopathy with high mortality rates. It is most prevalent in low income, rural regions of China and in areas with selenium-deficient soil. The condition can cause acute or congestive heart failure, a thinning heart wall, and cardiac arrhythmia, among other health issues.

Left Heart Catheterization

Left heart catheterization is the passage of a thin flexible tube (catheter) into the left side of the heart. It is done to diagnose or treat certain heart problems.

Myocardial Bridge Treatment

A myocardial bridge is a usually harmless condition in which one or more of the coronary arteries goes through the heart muscle instead of lying on its surface. Most bridges don't seem to cause symptoms. However, some people with myocardial bridges can experience angina, or chest pain.

Myocardial Viability Testing

Purpose. Positron emission tomography (PET) viability imaging is used to assess how much heart muscle has been damaged by a heart attack or heart disease. This test is used to determine whether a patient may need angiography, cardiac bypass surgery, heart transplant or other procedures.

Pacemaker Implantation

A pacemaker insertion is the implantation of a small electronic device that is usually placed in the chest (just below the collarbone) to help regulate slow electrical problems with the heart. A pacemaker may be recommended toensure that the heartbeat does not slow to a dangerously low rate.

Pancarditis Treatment

Pancarditis, also called perimyoendocarditis, is the inflammation of the entire heart: the pericardium, the myocardium and the endocardium. Reflux carditis refers to a possible outcome of esophageal reflux (also known as GERD), and involves inflammation of the esophagus/stomach mucosa.

Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) Closure

Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a persistent opening between the two major blood vessels leading from the heart. The opening (ductus arteriosus) is a normal part of a baby's circulatory system in the womb that usually closes shortly after birth. If it remains open, it's called a patent ductus arteriosus.

Pediatric Cardiology

Paediatric cardiologists are doctors who diagnose and treat children with cardiac (heart) conditions. They work with patients antenatally (before birth), through childhood and into adulthood.

Pericardiocentesis

Pericardiocentesis is a procedure done to remove fluid that has built up in the sac around the heart (pericardium). It's done using a needle and small catheter to drain excess fluid.

Pericarditis Treatment

Pericarditis is swelling and irritation of the thin, saclike tissue surrounding the heart (pericardium). Pericarditis often causes sharp chest pain. The chest pain occurs when the irritated layers of the pericardium rub against each other. Pericarditis is usually mild and goes away without treatment.

Preoperative Evaluation

Preoperative evaluation means an assessment of cardiac risk. The goal of perioperative cardiac risk assessment is to identify those patients with unstable cardiac disease for whom further study and treatment warrants the risk of surgical delay.

Pulmonary Artery Banding (PAB)

Pulmonary artery banding (PAB) is a surgical technique used for the palliation of certain congenital cardiac defects. The most common indication is for the limitation of pulmonary blood flow in the clinical scenario of pulmonary over-circulation caused by large left-to-right shunts.

Right Heart Catheterization

In a right-heart cath, your doctor guides a special catheter (a small, hollow tube) called a pulmonary artery (PA) catheter to the right side of your heart. He or she then passes the tube into your pulmonary artery. This is the main artery that carries blood to your lungs.

Roemheld Syndrome Treatment

Roemheld syndrome (RS), or gastrocardiac syndrome, or gastric cardiac syndrome or Roemheld-Techlenburg-Ceconi-Syndrome or gastric-cardia, was a medical syndrome first coined by Ludwig von Roemheld (1871–1938) describing a cluster of cardiovascular symptoms stimulated by gastrointestinal changes.

Shone's Syndrome Treatment

Shone's complex is a congenital (present at birth) heart disease. It affects how blood flows both into and out of the left side of the heart. The multiple sites of blockage in the blood flow through the left side of the heart differentiates Shone's syndrome from other isolated heart defects.

Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection (SCAD) Treatment

Spontaneous coronary artery dissection — sometimes referred to as SCAD — is an emergency condition that occurs when a tear forms in a blood vessel in the heart. SCAD can slow or block blood flow to the heart, causing a heart attack, heart rhythm problems (arrythmias) or sudden death.

Stress Electrocardiography (ECG)

The exercise stress test -- also known as an exercise electrocardiogram, treadmill test, graded exercise test, or stress EKG -- is used most often. It lets your doctor know how your heart responds to being pushed. You'll walk on a treadmill or pedal a stationary bike. It'll get more difficult as you go.

Subaortic Membrane Excision

Subaortic membrane resection is an open-heart surgery performed under general anesthesia with the use of a heart-lung bypass machine. The surgeon will open the chest and then the aorta near the aortic valve. The subaortic membrane is removed, which will restore the flow of blood from the left ventricle to the body.

Surgery for Coarctation of the Aorta

During surgery to correct a coarctation, the narrow portion is removed and the aorta is reconstructed or patched to allow blood to flow normally through the aorta. Even after surgery, children with a coarctation of the aorta often have high blood pressure that is treated with medicine.

Surgery for Ebstein's Anomaly

Several types of procedures can be used to surgically treat Ebstein anomaly and associated defects. Tricuspid valve repair. Surgeons reduce the size of the valve opening and allow the valve leaflets to come together to work properly. A band might be placed around the valve to keep it in place.

Surgery for Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome

Soon after a baby with hypoplastic left heart syndrome is born, multiple surgeries done in a particular order are needed to increase blood flow to the body and bypass the poorly functioning left side of the heart. The right ventricle becomes the main pumping chamber to the body.

Surgery for Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)

Surgery for tetralogy of Fallot involves open-heart surgery to correct the defects (intracardiac repair) or a temporary procedure that uses a shunt. Most babies and older children have intracardiac repair.

Surgery for Transposition of the Great Arteries (TGA)

Arterial switch is a surgical procedure and the main treatment to correct transposition of the great arteries (TGA). Almost all children with TGA undergo the arterial switch repair (also called the Jatene repair). Soon after birth, babies with TGA become very sick because of a severe lack of oxygen.

Temporary Pacemaker

Temporary cardiac pacing is an intervention that helps the heartbeat get back to a normal pace if it has been temporarily out of rhythm. In temporary cardiac pacing, wires are inserted through the chest (during heart surgery), or a large vein in the groin or neck, and are directly connected to the heart.

Tilt Table Test

In a tilt table test, you lie on a table that adjusts your body position from horizontal to vertical to simulate standing up. The test can tell your doctor if faulty brain signals are causing low blood pressure. A tilt table test is used to evaluate the cause of unexplained fainting.

Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Connection (TAPVC) Surgery

Total anomalous pulmonary venous return (TAPVR) is a condition in which the blood vessels from the lungs take an abnormal path back to the heart. TAPVR surgery is open heart surgery done to fix this problem. The heart has 4 chambers: a right and left atrium and a right and left ventricle.

Tricuspid Atresia Treatment

Tricuspid atresia (pronounced try-CUSP-id uh-TREE-zhuh) is a birth defect of the heart where the valve that controls blood flow from the right upper chamber of the heart to the right lower chamber of the heart doesn't form at all.

Tricuspid Valve (TV) Repair

Tricuspid valve repair is an open-heart procedure. Your surgeon may reshape the valve, or repair or separate fused valve leaflets. The operation can be done through a small incision on the side of the chest.

Ultrafast CT Scan (Computed Tomography)

An ultrafast computed tomography (CT) scan is also called electron beam CT scan. It's an imaging test that uses X-rays and a computer to look at your heart. The scan takes pictures very quickly.

24 Hour Blood Pressure Monitoring

A technique to measure blood pressure continuously is 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Even when you are asleep, your blood pressure is monitored. Your doctor can get a better idea of your blood pressure numbers from the information that is collected over time.

Acute Decompensated Heart Failure Treatment

In acute decompensated heart failure, the development of heart failure may be either rapid or gradually, and patients will exhibit the normal indications and symptoms of heart failure.

Angina Pectoris Treatment

The two main types of surgery used to fix an aneurysm are open surgery and endovascular repair. When you have open surgery, the doctor makes a big cut in your stomach or chest. The damaged part of the aorta is then replaced with a graft by the doctor. In endovascular repair, the cut is much smaller than in open surgery.

Aortic Valve Repair

Aortic valve replacement is a procedure in which an artificial heart valve is used to replace a patient's failing aortic valve. Most of the time, open-heart surgery and opening the chest bone are used to fix aortic valves.

Aortic Stenosis Treatment

To treat aortic valve stenosis, people often need to have their aortic valves replaced. During aortic valve replacement, your doctor takes out the damaged valve and puts in a new one made of cow, pig, or human heart tissue.

Aortopulmonary Window Repair

Surgery is done with the help of cardiopulmonary bypass. An incision can be made in the front of the aorta, in the main pulmonary artery, or in the aortopulmonary window itself. Usually, related lesions are fixed during the same surgery.

Atherosclerosis Treatment

Atherosclerosis is when fats, cholesterol, and other things build up in and on the walls of the arteries. Atherosclerosis can make arteries narrow, which can stop blood from flowing and cause a blood clot.

Atrial Septal Defect (ASD) Closure

ASD closure is a method to close a hole in your heart called an atrial septal defect (ASD). ASD is a hole in the wall (septum) between the two upper chambers of your heart that isn't supposed to be there. Usually, the hole closes up a few weeks after the baby is born.

Balloon Pulmonary Valvuloplasty

With balloon valvuloplasty, the pulmonary valve is fixed. A long, thin tube called a catheter is used in the process. At the end of this tube is a balloon that you can blow up. The doctor threads this catheter all the way to the pulmonary valve through a blood vessel in the groin.
Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT)
Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT) 1 Services

Ear, Nose and Throat Consultation

A general ENT consultation is an appointment with an otolaryngologist for conditions affecting the ears, nose and throat. Although the three organs appear distinct from one another, all of them are part of the upper respiratory system. They also have similarities, including the mucous lining.
Nephrology
Nephrology 4 Services

Hydronephrosis Treatment

Hydronephrosis is a condition where one or both kidneys become stretched and swollen as the result of a build-up of urine inside them. It can affect people of any age and is sometimes spotted in unborn babies during routine pregnancy ultrasound scans. This is known as antenatal hydronephrosis.

Kidney Dialysis

Dialysis is a procedure to remove waste products and excess fluid from the blood when the kidneys stop working properly. It often involves diverting blood to a machine to be cleaned.

Kidney Transplant (Living Related Donor)

A living-donor kidney transplant is when a kidney from a living donor is removed and placed into a recipient whose kidneys no longer function properly. Only one donated kidney is needed to replace two failed kidneys, which makes living-donor kidney transplant an alternative to deceased-donor kidney transplant.Jan

Nephrology Consultation

Nephrology (from Greek nephros "kidney", combined with the suffix -logy, "the study of") is a specialty of adult internal medicine and pediatric medicine that concerns the study of the kidneys, specifically normal kidney function (renal physiology) and kidney disease (renal pathophysiology), the preservation of kidney ...
Neurology
Neurology 14 Services

Cauda Equina Syndrome Treatment

Cauda equina syndrome is best treated with decompression by a lumbar laminectomy, but a lumbar microdiscectomy may be used given a patient's unique situation. The patient will likely be kept in the hospital for a few days following the surgery to monitor recovery of motor and sensory function.

Dementia Management

Dementia is a general term for loss of memory, language, problem-solving and other thinking abilities that are severe enough to interfere with daily life. Alzheimer's is the most common cause of dementia.

Epilepsy Treatment

Epilepsy is a common condition that affects the brain and causes frequent seizures. Seizures are bursts of electrical activity in the brain that temporarily affect how it works. They can cause a wide range of symptoms. Epilepsy can start at any age, but usually starts either in childhood or in people over 60.

Huntington's Disease Consultation

Huntington's disease is a rare, inherited disease that causes the progressive breakdown (degeneration) of nerve cells in the brain. Huntington's disease has a broad impact on a person's functional abilities and usually results in movement, thinking (cognitive) and psychiatric disorders.

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Consultation

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a potentially disabling disease of the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system). In MS , the immune system attacks the protective sheath (myelin) that covers nerve fibers and causes communication problems between your brain and the rest of your body.

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Management

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a potentially disabling disease of the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system). In MS , the immune system attacks the protective sheath (myelin) that covers nerve fibers and causes communication problems between your brain and the rest of your body.

Neurological Rehabilitation

Neurological rehabilitation (rehab) is a doctor-supervised program designed for people with diseases, injury, or disorders of the nervous system. Neurological rehab can often improve function, reduce symptoms, and improve the well-being of the patient.

Parkinson's Disease Consultation

Parkinson's disease is a progressive nervous system disorder that affects movement. Symptoms start gradually, sometimes starting with a barely noticeable tremor in just one hand. Tremors are common, but the disorder also commonly causes stiffness or slowing of movement.

Parkinson's Disease Treatment

Parkinson's disease is a progressive nervous system disorder that affects movement. Symptoms start gradually, sometimes starting with a barely noticeable tremor in just one hand. Tremors are common, but the disorder also commonly causes stiffness or slowing of movement.

Spina Bifida Consultation

Spina bifida is when a baby's spine and spinal cord does not develop properly in the womb, causing a gap in the spine. Spina bifida is a type of neural tube defect. The neural tube is the structure that eventually develops into the baby's brain and spinal cord.

Stroke Consultation

A stroke is a serious life-threatening medical condition that happens when the blood supply to part of the brain is cut off. Strokes are a medical emergency and urgent treatment is essential. The sooner a person receives treatment for a stroke, the less damage is likely to happen.

Torticollis Treatment

Torticollis is a problem involving the muscles of the neck that causes the head to tilt down. The term comes from two Latin words: tortus, which means twisted, and collum, which means neck. Sometimes it's called “wryneck.” If your baby has the condition at birth, it's called congenital muscular torticollis.

Alzheimer's Disease Consultation

Your primary doctor, a doctor who specializes in brain problems (neurologist), or a doctor who knows how to treat older people (geriatrician) will look at your medical history, medications, and symptoms to figure out if you have Alzheimer's dementia. Your doctor will also do a number of tests on you.

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Consultation

A neurologist will usually do tests to rule out many of the other things that could cause a patient's symptoms. How long it takes to make a diagnosis depends on the type of symptoms, how quickly or slowly they get worse or change, and what other diseases have to be ruled out.
Ophthalmology
Ophthalmology 37 Services

Capsulotomy

Capsulotomy is a type of eye surgery in which an incision is made into the capsule of the crystalline lens of the eye. In modern cataract operations, the lens capsule is usually not removed.

Cataract Surgery

Cataract surgery is a procedure to remove the lens of your eye and, in most cases, replace it with an artificial lens. Normally, the lens of your eye is clear. A cataract causes the lens to become cloudy, which eventually affects your vision.

Chalazion Treatment

Treatment. Most chalazions require minimal medical treatment and clear up on their own in a few weeks to a month. Apply warm compresses to the eyelid for 10 to 15 minutes, 4 to 6 times a day for several days. The warm compresses may help soften the hardened oil that is blocking the ducts and allow drainage and healing.

Corneal Pachymetry

Corneal pachymetry is the process of measuring the thickness of the cornea. A pachymeter is a medical device used to measure the thickness of the eye's cornea.

Detached Retina Treatment

Removing and replacing the jelly inside your eye (vitrectomy) attaching a small band around your eye to push the wall of your eye and retina closer together (scleral buckling) injecting a bubble of gas into your eye to push the retina against the back of your eye (pneumatic retinopexy)

Diabetic Retinopathy Treatment

For diabetic retinopathy that is threatening or affecting your sight, the main treatments are: laser treatment – to treat the growth of new blood vessels at the back of the eye (retina) in cases of proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and to stabilise some cases of maculopathy.

Entropion/Ectropion Eyelid Repair

An entropion or ectropion repair is an operation to correct an eyelid that turns in or turns out. The operation should improve symptoms caused by entropion or ectropion.

Enucleation of the Eye

Enucleation is the surgical removal of the entire eyeball leaving behind the lining of the eyelids and muscles of the eye. Evisceration removes only the contents of the eye, leaving the white part of the eye (the sclera) and the eye muscles intact.

Exophthalmos Treatment

Exophthalmos, also known as proptosis, is the medical term for bulging or protruding eyeballs. It can affect 1 or both eyes and is most often caused by thyroid eye disease.

Eye Cancer Treatment

If the cancer starts inside the eyeball it's called intraocular cancer. The most common intraocular cancers in adults are melanoma and lymphoma. The most common eye cancer in children is retinoblastoma, which starts in the cells of the retina. Cancer can also spread to the eye from other parts of the body

Eye Examination

An eye examination is a series of tests performed to assess vision and ability to focus on and discern objects. It also includes other tests and examinations pertaining to the eyes. Eye examinations are primarily performed by an optometrist, ophthalmologist, or an orthoptist.

Eye Implant

The bionic vision system consists of a camera, attached to a pair of glasses, which transmits high-frequency radio signals to a microchip implanted in the retina. Electrodes on the implanted chip convert these signals into electrical impulses to stimulate cells in the retina that connect to the optic nerve.

Eye Muscle Repair

Eye muscle repair is surgery to correct eye muscle problems that cause strabismus (crossed eyes). Strabismus surgery corrects and aligns the muscles of the eye. The conjunctiva links the eyeball to the eye socket. The external muscles of the eye are found behind the conjunctiva.

Eye Surgery

LASIK eye surgery can help you correct refractive errors in vision such as nearsightedness (myopia), farsightedness (hyperopia), and astigmatism. The procedure uses a state-of-the-art laser to reshape your cornea so that it focuses light properly. The end result is clearer, sharper vision.

Intracorneal Ring Segment (ICRS) Implantation

Intracorneal ring segment (ICRS) implantation represents a modern, minimally invasive, surgical option for visual improvement in patients with keratoconus. ICRS modify the corneal geometry in a manner that enhances its refractive properties and thereby, they improve visual acuity.

Intraocular Lens (IOL) Implant

An intraocular lens implant is an artificial replacement for the lens of your eye. It's part of the surgery to fix cataracts.

Intravitreal Injection

An intravitreal injection is a shot of medicine into the eye. The inside of the eye is filled with a jelly-like fluid (vitreous). During this procedure, your health care provider injects medicine into the vitreous, near the retina at the back of the eye.

Iridectomy

An iridectomy, also known as a surgical iridectomy or corectomy, is the surgical removal of part of the iris. These procedures are most frequently performed in the treatment of closed-angle glaucoma and iris melanoma.

Iridodialysis Treatment

Iridodialysis is the disinsertion of the iris from the scleral spur. It is in contrast from cyclodialysis, which is disinsertion of the ciliary body from the scleral spur. This patient suffers from monocular diplopia and glare.

Iridoplasty

Iridoplasty, also known as gonioplasty, uses low-energy laser burns to the peripheral iris in order to widen the anterior chamber angle and/or break peripheral anterior synechiae.

Iris Repair Surgery

Iris surgeries come in the form of iris repair (iridoplasty) or an iris prosthesis. Iris repair often involves the use of sutures inside the eye to reshape the iris to its original shape, re-creating a round pupil. Sometimes the surgeon may cut some of the existing iris to help improve the appearance.

Laser Coagulation

Laser photocoagulation is eye surgery using a laser to shrink or destroy abnormal structures in the retina, or to intentionally cause scarring.

Macular Hole Surgery

A macular hole can often be repaired using an operation called a vitrectomy. The operation is successful in closing the hole in around 9 out of 10 people who've had the hole for less than 6 months. If the hole has been present for a year or longer, the success rate will be lower.

Ocular Biometry

Ocular biometry is a test that measures the dimensions of the eyeball: the axial length (distance between the anterior and posterior parts of the eye) and the depth of the anterior chamber (part between the cornea and the iris and lens).

Ophthalmology Consultation

Ophthalmology is the study of medical conditions relating to the eye. Ophthalmologists are doctors who specialize in the medical and surgical treatment of this organ.

Optic Neuropathy Treatment

Optic neuropathy is a catch-all term that refers to damage inflicted on the optic nerve in your eye. This is the nerve in the back of the eyeball that transfers visual information from your eye to the brain, allowing you to see. This condition is one that gets worse over time, when not treated.

Small Incision Lenticule Extraction (SMILE)

Small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) is a relatively new refractive procedure designed to treat a multitude of refractive errors such as myopia, hyperopia, presbyopia, and astigmatism.

Staphyloma Treatment

A staphyloma is an abnormal protrusion of the uveal tissue through a weak point in the eyeball. The protrusion is generally black in colour, due to the inner layers of the eye. It occurs due to weakening of outer layer of eye (cornea or sclera) by an inflammatory or degenerative condition.

Strabismus Treatment

Strabismus (crossed eyes) is a condition in which the eyes do not line up with one another. In other words, one eye is turned in a direction that is different from the other eye. Under normal conditions, the six muscles that control eye movement work together and point both eyes at the same direction.

Tear Duct Surgery

A dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) is a surgery that creates a new path for tears to drain between your eyes and your nose. You may need this surgery if your tear duct has become blocked.

Trabeculectomy

Trabeculectomy is a type of glaucoma surgery performed on the eye that creates a new pathway for fluid inside the eye to be drained. This is an outpatient procedure performed in the operating room. It is used to prevent worsening of vision loss due to glaucoma by lowering eye pressure.

Vitrectomy

A vitrectomy is a type of eye surgery to treat various problems with the retina and vitreous. During the surgery, your surgeon removes the vitreous and replaces it with another solution. The vitreous is a gel-like substance that fills the middle portion of your eye.

Xanthelasma Removal

Xanthelasma is a well-circumscribed flat or slightly elevated yellowish growth that typically occurs on or around the eyelids. It is made up of cholesterol deposits that accumulate underneath the skin and is usually an obvious clinical diagnosis.

Amniotic Membrane Transplant

Amniotic membrane, or amnion, is the innermost layer of the placenta. It is made up of a thick basement membrane and an avascular stromal matrix. Different types of surgery have used amniotic membrane transplantation as a graft or a dressing.

Anti-VEGF Therapy

Anti–vascular endothelial growth factor therapy, also called anti–VEGF therapy or medication, is the use of drugs that block angiogenesis. This is done to treat some types of cancer and macular degeneration caused by getting older.

Astigmatism Correction

Eyeglasses, contact lenses, and even refractive surgery are all viable options for astigmatism treatment. In certain cases, cataract surgery may be able to rectify the issue.

Band Keratopathy Treatment

Band Keratopathy is a type of corneal degeneration that is usually caused by calcium deposits in the sub-epithelium, Bowman's layer, and anterior stroma that look like fine dust. It usually looks like a cloudy band that goes from the edge of the cornea to the middle.
Oncology
Oncology 64 Services

Benign Soft Tissue Tumor Treatment

The vast majority of benign soft tissue tumors can be treated with a single clean surgical procedure and minimal risk to surrounding normal blood vessels, nerves, muscle or bone. This provides the patient with the greatest possible functional recovery and the least chance of local recurrence of the tumor.

Brainstem Glioma Treatment

Brain stem glioma is a type of central nervous system (CNS; brain and spinal cord) tumor. This type of tumor begins when healthy cells in the brain stem change and grow out of control, forming a mass called a tumor. A tumor can be cancerous or benign.

Breast Cancer Treatment

Surgery is usually the first type of treatment for breast cancer. The type of surgery you have will depend on the type of breast cancer you have. Surgery is usually followed by chemotherapy or radiotherapy or, in some cases, hormone or targeted therapies.

Cancer Marker Blood Test

Tumor marker tests use a sample of blood to look for chemicals made by cancer cells. These tests don't always help with diagnosing cancer because many healthy cells also make these chemicals. And some conditions that aren't cancer can cause high levels of tumor markers

Cancer Screening

Cancer screening is looking for cancer before a person has any symptoms. Screening tests can help find cancer at an early stage, before symptoms appear. When abnormal tissue or cancer is found early, it may be easier to treat or cure.

Castleman Disease Treatment

Unicentric Castleman disease can be cured by surgically removing the diseased lymph node. If the lymph node is in your chest or abdomen — which is often the case — major surgery may be required. If surgical removal isn't possible, medication may be used to shrink the lymph node.

Cervical Cancer Treatment

Most early-stage cervical cancers are treated with a radical hysterectomy operation, which involves removing the cervix, uterus, part of the vagina and nearby lymph nodes.

Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy is a drug treatment that uses powerful chemicals to kill fast-growing cells in your body. Chemotherapy is most often used to treat cancer, since cancer cells grow and multiply much more quickly than most cells in the body. Many different chemotherapy drugs are available.

Chondrosarcoma Treatment

Chondrosarcomas is a group of rare bone cancer tumors that begin in your cartilage. Cartilage is soft connective tissue that allows movement between your bones and joints. The most common treatment is surgery to remove cancerous tissue and bone.

Choroid Plexus Tumor Treatment

The first treatment for choroid plexus tumors is surgery, if possible. The goal of surgery is to obtain tissue to determine the tumor type and to remove as much tumor as possible without causing more symptoms for the person. Treatments after surgery may include radiation, chemotherapy, or clinical trials.

Chronic Leukemia Treatment

Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia is a type of cancer that affects the white blood cells and tends to progress slowly over many years. It mostly affects people over the age of 60 and is rare in people under 40. Children are almost never affected.

Colon/Bowel Cancer Treatment

Treatment for colon cancer usually involves surgery to remove the cancer. Other treatments, such as radiation therapy and chemotherapy, might also be recommended.

Craniopharyngioma Treatment

A rare, benign (not cancer) brain tumor that usually forms near the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus. Craniopharyngiomas are slow-growing and do not spread to other parts of the brain or to other parts of the body.

Dysembryoplastic Neuroepithelial Tumor Treatment

The most common DNET treatment is to remove the tumor surgically. Because it is a benign tumor, and prognosis is good even if not the entire tumor is not removed, radiation and chemotherapy are not used.

Gallbladder Cancer Treatment

Gallbladder cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the gallbladder. Gallbladder cancer is a rare disease in which malignant (cancer) cells are found in the tissues of the gallbladder. The gallbladder is a pear-shaped organ that lies just under the liver in the upper abdomen.

Germ Cell Tumor (GCT) Treatment

Germ cell tumor (GCT) is a neoplasm derived from germ cells. Germ-cell tumors can be cancerous or benign. Germ cells normally occur inside the gonads (ovary and testis). GCTs that originate outside the gonads may be birth defects resulting from errors during development of the embryo.

Gestational Trophoblastic Disease (GTD) Treatment

Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is a group of rare diseases in which abnormal trophoblast cells grow inside the uterus after conception. In gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD), a tumor develops inside the uterus from tissue that forms after conception (the joining of sperm and egg).

Glioblastoma Treatment

Glioblastoma is an aggressive type of cancer that can occur in the brain or spinal cord. Glioblastoma forms from cells called astrocytes that support nerve cells. Glioblastoma can occur at any age, but tends to occur more often in older adults. It can cause worsening headaches, nausea, vomiting and seizures.

Head and Neck Cancer Treatment

Head and neck cancer develops from tissues in the lip and oral cavity (mouth), larynx (throat), salivary glands, nose, sinuses or the skin of the face. The most common types of head and neck cancers occur in the lip, mouth, and larynx. Symptoms predominantly include a sore that does not heal or a change in the voice.

Hematology Oncology Consultation

Hematology-oncology is the overlap of these two specialist branches of medicine concerned with diagnosing, treating and studying cancers of the blood cells, bone marrow and related tissues.

High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU)

High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a non-invasive therapy that uses focused ultrasound waves to thermally ablate a portion of tissue, meaning the tissue is destroyed using intense heat.

Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment

The main treatments for Hodgkin lymphoma are chemotherapy alone, or chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy. Occasionally, chemotherapy may be combined with steroid medicine. Surgery isn't generally used to treat the condition, except for the biopsy used to diagnose it.

Hormone Therapy for Cancer

Hormone therapy is used to treat cancers that use hormones to grow, such as some prostate and breast cancers. Hormone therapy is a cancer treatment that slows or stops the growth of cancer that uses hormones to grow. Hormone therapy is also called hormonal therapy, hormone treatment, or endocrine therapy.Apr 29, 2015

Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy (HIPEC)

Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) surgery is a two-step procedure that treats certain cancers in the abdomen. Cancerous tumors are surgically removed, and then heated chemotherapy drugs are applied directly inside the abdomen to eliminate the remaining cancerous cells.

Kidney Cancer Treatment

Kidney cancer is cancer that begins in the kidneys. Your kidneys are two bean-shaped organs, each about the size of your fist. They're located behind your abdominal organs, with one kidney on each side of your spine. In adults, renal cell carcinoma is the most common type of kidney cancer.

Liver Cancer Treatment

Liver cancer (also known as hepatic cancer, primary hepatic cancer, or primary hepatic malignancy) is cancer that starts in the liver. Liver cancer can be primary (starts in liver) or secondary (meaning cancer which has spread from elsewhere to the liver, known as liver metastasis).

Male Breast Cancer Treatment

Male breast cancer is a rare cancer that forms in the breast tissue of men. Though breast cancer is most commonly thought of as a disease that affects women, breast cancer does occur in men. Male breast cancer is most common in older men, though it can occur at any age.

Malignant Mesothelioma Treatment

Malignant mesothelioma is a cancer of the thin tissue (mesothelium) that lines the lung, chest wall, and abdomen. The major risk factor for mesothelioma is asbestos exposure. Explore the links on this page to learn more about malignant mesothelioma treatment and clinical trials.

Medulloblastoma Treatment

Medulloblastoma is the most common type of cancerous brain tumor in children. Medulloblastoma (muh-dul-o-blas-TOE-muh) is a cancerous (malignant) brain tumor that starts in the lower back part of the brain, called the cerebellum.

Medulloepithelioma Treatment

Medulloepithelioma is a rare, primitive, fast-growing brain tumour thought to stem from cells of the embryonic medullary cavity. Tumours originating in the ciliary body of the eye are referred to as embryonal medulloepitheliomas, or diktyomas.

Microcystic Adnexal Carcinoma (MAC) Treatment

MICROCYSTIC adnexal carcinoma (MAC), or sclerosing sweat duct carcinoma, is an uncommon cutaneous malignant neoplasm that is associated with significant morbidity in light of its propensity for local invasion. As implied by its names, MAC exhibits small keratinizing cysts and well-defined ducts.

Mohs Skin Cancer Surgery

Mohs surgery is a precise surgical technique used to treat skin cancer. During Mohs surgery, thin layers of cancer-containing skin are progressively removed and examined until only cancer-free tissue remains. Mohs surgery is also known as Mohs micrographic surgery.

Neuroblastoma Treatment

Neuroblastoma is a cancer that develops from immature nerve cells found in several areas of the body. Neuroblastoma most commonly arises in and around the adrenal glands, which have similar origins to nerve cells and sit atop the kidneys.

Oligodendroglioma Treatment

Oligodendroglioma is a tumor that can occur in the brain or spinal cord. Oligodendroglioma forms from oligodendrocytes — cells in the brain and spinal cord that produce a substance that protects nerve cells. Oligodendroglioma can occur at any age, but most often affects adults.

Oral Cancer Treatment

Mouth cancer, also known as oral cancer, is where a tumour develops in a part of the mouth. It may be on the surface of the tongue, the inside of the cheeks, the roof of the mouth (palate), the lips or gums.

Osteosarcoma Treatment

Osteosarcoma is a type of bone cancer that begins in the cells that form bones. Osteosarcoma is most often found in the long bones — more often the legs, but sometimes the arms — but it can start in any bone. In very rare instances, it occurs in soft tissue outside the bone.

Pancreatic Cancer Treatment

Pancreatic cancer is cancer that forms in the cells of the pancreas. Pancreatic cancer begins in the tissues of your pancreas — an organ in your abdomen that lies behind the lower part of your stomach. Your pancreas releases enzymes that aid digestion and produces hormones that help manage your blood sugar.

Pancreatic Islet Cell Tumor Treatment

Pancreatic islet cell tumors are rare types of hormone-producing tumors that form in tissues of the pancreas. The cells of the pancreas cluster together in small groups, called islets, throughout the pancreas. When a tumor occurs in one of these clusters, it is called an islet cell tumor. It may be benign or cancerous.

Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity Cancer Treatment

Paranasal sinus and nasal cavity cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity. "Paranasal" means near the nose. The para sinuses are hollow, air-filled spaces in the bones around the nose.

Penile Cancer Treatment

Penile cancer is a rare cancer in the UK. It happens when abnormal penile cells grow in an uncontrolled way. It can develop anywhere on the penis but is most common under the foreskin in men who haven't been circumcised or on the head of the penis (the glans).

Pineoblastoma Treatment

Pineoblastoma is a type of cancerous (malignant) tumor that grows in a part of the brain known as the pineal gland. It occurs mainly in children. Symptoms of pineoblastoma include a buildup of fluid around the brain ( hydrocephalus ), headaches, nausea, and difficulty with eye movement.

Plasmacytoma Treatment

Plasmacytoma is a plasma cell dyscrasia in which a plasma cell tumour grows within soft tissue or within the axial skeleton. The International Myeloma Working Group lists three types: solitary plasmacytoma of bone (SPB); extramedullary plasmacytoma (EP), and multiple plasmacytomas that are either primary or recurrent.

Pleomorphic Xanthoastrocytoma Treatment

Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) and anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (APXA) are two types of very rare astrocytomas. They are primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors. This means they begin in the brain or spinal cord.

Primary Bone Cancer Treatment

Primary bone cancer is cancer that forms in cells of the bone. Some types of primary bone cancer are osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, and chondrosarcoma. Secondary bone cancer is cancer that spreads to the bone from another part of the body (such as the prostate, breast, or lung).

Prostate Cancer Treatment

Prostate cancer is cancer that occurs in the prostate. The prostate is a small walnut-shaped gland in males that produces the seminal fluid that nourishes and transports sperm. Prostate cancer is one of the most common types of cancer.

Radiosurgery Cancer Treatment

A type of external radiation therapy that uses special equipment to position the patient and precisely give a single large dose of radiation to a tumor. It is used to treat brain tumors and other brain disorders that cannot be treated by regular surgery.

Radiotherapy Consultation

Radiation therapy (also called radiotherapy) is a cancer treatment that uses high doses of radiation to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. At low doses, radiation is used in x-rays to see inside your body, as with x-rays of your teeth or broken bones.

Radiotherapy

Radiation therapy (also called radiotherapy) is a cancer treatment that uses high doses of radiation to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. At low doses, radiation is used in x-rays to see inside your body, as with x-rays of your teeth or broken bones.

Regional Chemotherapy

Refers to cancer that has grown beyond the original (primary) tumor to nearby lymph nodes or organs and tissues.

Skin Cancer Treatment

Skin cancer — the abnormal growth of skin cells — most often develops on skin exposed to the sun. But this common form of cancer can also occur on areas of your skin not ordinarily exposed to sunlight. There are three major types of skin cancer — basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma.

Soft Tissue Sarcoma Treatment

Soft tissue sarcoma is a broad term for cancers that start in soft tissues (muscle, tendons, fat, lymph and blood vessels, and nerves). These cancers can develop anywhere in the body but are found mostly in the arms, legs, chest, and abdomen.

Stomach Cancer Treatment

Stomach cancer begins when cancer cells form in the inner lining of your stomach. These cells can grow into a tumor. Also called gastric cancer, the disease usually grows slowly over many years. Stomach cancer is most often seen in people in their late 60s through 80s.

Teratoma Treatment

A teratoma is a rare type of germ cell tumor that may contain immature or fully formed tissue, including teeth, hair, bone and muscle. Teratomas may be cancerous or noncancerous, and they can affect people of all ages. Treatment involves surgical removal.

Testicular Cancer Treatment

Testicular cancer is a disease that occurs when cancerous (malignant) cells develop in the tissues of a testicle. The development of cancerous cells in both testicles can occur, but is very rare. Testicular cancer is the most common cancer in men aged 20 to 35. The disease usually is curable.

Thymus Cancer Treatment

Thymoma and thymic carcinoma are diseases in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the thymus. Thymoma and thymic carcinoma, also called thymic epithelial tumors (TETs), are two types of rare cancers that can form in the cells that cover the outside surface of the thymus.

Thyroid Cancer Treatment

Thyroid cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the thyroid gland. Thyroid nodules are common but usually are not cancer. There are different types of thyroid cancer. Age, gender, and being exposed to radiation can affect the risk of thyroid cancer.

Treatment for Cancer of Unknown Primary (CUP)

Carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) is a rare disease in which malignant (cancer) cells are found in the body but the place the cancer began is not known. Cancer can form in any tissue of the body. The primary cancer (the cancer that first formed) can spread to other parts of the body.

Treatment of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors

Gastrointestinal stromal tumor is a disease in which abnormal cells form in the tissues of the gastrointestinal tract. Genetic factors can increase the risk of having a gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Signs of gastrointestinal stromal tumors include blood in the stool or vomit.

Vaginal Cancer Treatment

Vaginal cancer is a very rare cancer that's found anywhere in the vagina. The vagina is a tube between the vulva and the opening of the womb (cervix). Vaginal cancer is nearly always caused by an infection from certain types of the human papillomavirus (HPV).

Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia Treatment

Waldenström macroglobulinemia is a rare blood cell cancer characterized by an excess of abnormal white blood cells in the bone marrow. These abnormal cells have characteristics of both white blood cells (lymphocytes ) called B cells and more mature cells derived from B cells known as plasma cells.

Wilms' Tumor Treatment

Wilms tumor is a type of childhood cancer that starts in the kidneys. It is the most common type of kidney cancer in children. About 9 of 10 kidney cancers in children are Wilms tumors.

Adrenal Cancer Treatment

The removal of all of the cancerous tissue during surgery is the typical therapy for adrenal cancer. If surgery is not an option or if the cancer is unable to be removed surgically, there are other therapies that may be used.

Anal Cancer Treatment

Chemoradiation, which is a mix of radiotherapy and chemotherapy, is the main way to treat anal cancer. Chemotherapy or radiotherapy on their own, or surgery, are also ways to treat cancer. The experts who are taking care of you will explain the treatments, as well as their benefits and risks.

Angiosarcoma Treatment

Chemotherapy is the main way to treat angiosarcoma that has spread to other parts of the body, even though many of the drugs used in treatment are toxic.
Orthopedics
Orthopedics 62 Services

Bone Fracture Treatment

Treatment includes immobilising the bone with a plaster cast, or surgically inserting metal rods or plates to hold the bone pieces together. Some complicated fractures may need surgery and surgical traction.

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Surgery

During carpal tunnel release, a surgeon makes an incision in the palm of your hand over the carpal tunnel ligament and cuts through the ligament to relieve pressure on the median nerve. The surgery may be done by making one incision on the palm side of the wrist, or by making several small incisions.

Cervical Fracture Treatment

A minor (compression) fracture is often treated with a cervical collar or brace worn for six to eight weeks until the bone heals on its own. A more severe or complex fracture may require traction, or surgical repair or a spinal fusion.

Cervical Strain Treatment

Most patients feel relief using anti-inflammatory medications such as ibuprofen, or using ice, moist heat or a neck brace. Physical therapy, massage and stretching can also be effective. Generally, symptoms resolve in a few days to a few weeks.

Chondroma Treatment

Curettage describes a procedure in which a tumor is surgically scraped out of the bone, leaving a cavity that is then packed with either donor bone tissue (allograft), bone chips taken from another bone (autograft), or other materials depending on the preference of the surgeon.

Coccydynia Treatment

Direct trauma to the tailbone is the most common cause of coccydynia, and usually leads to inflammation surrounding the coccyx, which contributes to pain and discomfort. There are many cases reported in which pain begins with no identifiable origin (called idiopathic coccydynia).

Compartment Syndrome Treatment

Acute compartment syndrome must be treated in hospital using a surgical procedure called an emergency fasciotomy. The doctor or surgeon makes an incision to cut open your skin and fascia surrounding the muscles to immediately relieve the pressure inside the muscle compartment.

Congenital Hip Dislocation Treatment

It may be concluded that in this age group congenital hip dislocation is best treated by non-surgical reduction, possibly followed by surgery of the femur and acetabulum. Surgical reduction was only indicated when conservative methods failed.

Core Decompression of the Hip

Hip core decompression is a surgical procedure used to treat osteonecrosis, or avascular necrosis (AVN) of the hip. It involves drilling one larger hole, or several smaller holes into the dead bone of the femoral head (top of thigh bone) in order to relieve pressure in the bone.

Elbow Arthroscopy

Elbow arthroscopy is a minimally invasive technique used by orthopaedic surgeons to diagnose and treat a range of conditions affecting the joint. As in other joints, arthroscopy of the elbow involves the use of fiberoptics and a tiny camera that is inserted through small incisions or portals.

Elbow Replacement

Elbow replacement involves surgically replacing bones that make up the elbow joint with artificial elbow joint parts (prosthetic components). The artificial joint consists of two stems made of high-quality metal. They are joined together with a metal and plastic hinge that allows the artificial elbow joint to bend.

Elbow Surgery

Elbow replacement surgery (sometimes referred to as total elbow arthroplasty) is an operation that surgeons use to relieve pain and restore motion to a damaged elbow. During this surgery, a doctor replaces your elbow joint with an artificial joint. Elbow replacement surgery does not always involve the entire elbow.

Exostosis Treatment

An exostosis is an extra growth of bone that extends outward from an existing bone. Common types of exostoses include bone spurs, which are bony growths also known as osteophytes. An exostosis can occur on any bone, but is often found in the feet, hip region, or ear canal.

Femur Fracture Treatment

A broken thighbone, also known as a femur fracture, is a serious and painful injury. The femur is one of the strongest bones in the body, and a break or fracture in the femur bone is often caused by severe injury such as trauma sustained in a motor vehicle accident.

Fracture Treatment

The initial management of fractures consists of realignment of the broken limb segment (if grossly deformed) and then immobilizing the fractured extremity in a splint. The distal neurologic and vascular status must be clinically assessed and documented before and after realignment and splinting.Mar 31, 2022

Frozen Shoulder Treatment

Frozen shoulder, also known as adhesive capsulitis, is a condition characterized by stiffness and pain in your shoulder joint. Signs and symptoms typically begin gradually, worsen over time and then resolve, usually within one to three years.

Ganglion Cyst Removal

Ganglion cyst removal is usually an outpatient procedure and may be performed under local or general anesthesia. Before surgery, your doctor may draw a line above the cyst to mark the incision location. During the surgery, your doctor numbs the treatment area and cuts along the line with a scalpel.

Hammer, Claw, or Mallet Toe Treatment

A hammertoe has an abnormal bend in the middle joint of a toe. Mallet toe affects the joint nearest the toenail. Hammertoe and mallet toe usually occur in your second, third and fourth toes. Relieving the pain and pressure of hammertoe and mallet toe may involve changing your footwear and wearing shoe inserts.

Hand Surgery

Hand surgery is the field of medicine that deals with problems of the hand, wrist, and forearm. Hand surgeons care for these problems with and without surgery. They are specially trained to operate when necessary.

Hip Arthroscopy

Hip arthroscopy is a minimally invasive surgery used to treat issues in your hip. Your surgeon will make a few small incisions (cuts) in the skin of your hip then insert a special tool called an arthroscope into your hip joint.

Hip Cartilage Damage Treatment

The commonly performed surgical procedures include arthroscopic lavage and debridement, marrow stimulation, mosaicplasty, allograft osteochondral transplantation and autologous chondrocyte implantation.

Hip Fracture Surgery

A hip fracture can be repaired with the help of metal screws, plates and rods. In some cases, artificial replacements (prostheses) of parts of the hip joint may be necessary. Treatment for hip fracture usually involves a combination of surgery, rehabilitation and medication.

Hip Pain Treatment

Hip pain is the general term for pain felt in or around the hip joint. It isn't always felt in the hip itself but may instead be felt in the groin or thigh.

Hip Replacement

A hip replacement is a common type of surgery where a damaged hip joint is replaced with an artificial one (known as an implant). Adults of any age can be considered for a hip replacement, although most are done on people between the ages of 60 and 80.

Hip Surgery

Hip replacement, also called hip arthroplasty, is a surgical procedure to address hip pain. The surgery replaces parts of the hip joint with artificial implants.

Kirschner Wire Removal

The K-wires stick out of the skin so that they can be easily removed once the bone has healed. They are covered with a dressing and a plaster cast and you / the patient will not be able to see them; alternatively they may be exposed out of the toe or finger.

Knee Arthroscopy

Knee arthroscopy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure. Healthcare providers use knee arthroscopy to diagnose and treat a range of knee injuries. Your healthcare provider makes a small incision and then inserts a long, thin tool with a camera on the end.

Knee Cartilage Damage Treatment

The slippery articular cartilage that coats your bones helps with smooth movement. If it's torn or worn, it can leave the rough bone surfaces exposed – resulting in friction in the joint. Damaged cartilage can potentially lead to knee arthritis, with long-term effects on your knee function.

Knee Cartilage Surgery

Cartilage surgery is performed arthroscopically or an incision is made in the front of the knee. Arthroscopy consists in making two small 5-mm incisions in the front of the knee. An arthroscope, or small camera, is inserted through one of the incisions to view the joint, and in particular the damaged cartilage.

Knee Fracture Treatment

A patella fracture is a break in your kneecap, the bone that covers your knee joint. It's usually caused by a traumatic injury, such as a fall or a blow to your kneecap. A patella fracture can be simple or complex. Some fractures require surgery to repair.

Knee Ligament Surgery (MCL)

An MCL tear is damage to the medial collateral ligament, which is a major ligament that's located on the inner side of your knee. The tear can be partial (some fibers in the ligament are torn) or complete (the ligament is torn into two pieces).

Kneecap Stabilization

Patella stabilisation surgery also known as patella realignment is a surgical procedure to stabilise and realign the patella following subluxation, dislocation and subsequent misalignment of the knee cap during movements.

Leg Length Discrepancy (LLD) Treatment

A limb length discrepancy (LLD) is when one arm or leg is longer than the other arm or leg. A difference in leg lengths is more likely to be noticed and to affect activities of daily living.

Little League Elbow Treatment

Little league elbow is a term used to describe lesions in the medial aspect of the elbow in preadolescent and adolescent baseball pitchers. Most commonly seen in children under the age of 10. The phenomenon is correlated to chronic forces of valgus overload produced during the early and late cocking phases of throwing.

Morton's Neuroma Treatment

Morton's neuroma is a benign but painful condition that affects the ball of the foot. It's also called an intermetatarsal neuroma because it's located in the ball of the foot between your metatarsal bones. It happens when the tissue around a nerve that leads to a toe thickens from irritation or compression.

Muscle Reconstruction

Flap surgery involves transporting healthy, live tissue from one location of the body to another - often to areas that have lost skin, fat, muscle movement, and/or skeletal support.

Orthopedics Consultation

Orthopedics is a branch of medicine that focuses on the care of the musculoskeletal system. This system is made up of muscles and bones, as well as joints, ligaments, and tendons. A person who specializes in orthopedics is known as an orthopedist.

Osteoarthritis Treatment

Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis, affecting millions of people worldwide. It occurs when the protective cartilage that cushions the ends of the bones wears down over time. Although osteoarthritis can damage any joint, the disorder most commonly affects joints in your hands, knees, hips and spine.

Osteochondritis Dissecans Treatment

Osteochondritis dissecans (os-tee-o-kon-DRY-tis DIS-uh-kanz) is a joint condition in which bone underneath the cartilage of a joint dies due to lack of blood flow. This bone and cartilage can then break loose, causing pain and possibly hindering joint motion.

Osteochondrosis Treatment

Osteochondrosis is a self-limiting developmental derangement of normal bone growth, primarily involving the centers of ossification in the epiphysis. [1, 2] It usually begins in childhood as a degenerative or necrotic condition. By definition, osteochondrosis is an aseptic ischemic necrosis.

Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) Treatment

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is an inherited (genetic) bone disorder that is present at birth. It is also known as brittle bone disease. A child born with OI may have soft bones that break (fracture) easily, bones that are not formed normally, and other problems.

Osteoma Treatment

An osteoma (plural: "osteomata") is a new piece of bone usually growing on another piece of bone, typically the skull. It is a benign tumor. When the bone tumor grows on other bone it is known as "homoplastic osteoma"; when it grows on other tissue it is called "heteroplastic osteoma".

Osteomalacia Treatment

Osteomalacia refers to a marked softening of your bones, most often caused by severe vitamin D deficiency. The softened bones of children and young adults with osteomalacia can lead to bowing during growth, especially in weight-bearing bones of the legs. Osteomalacia in older adults can lead to fractures.

Paget's Disease Treatment

Paget's (PAJ-its) disease of bone interferes with your body's normal recycling process, in which new bone tissue gradually replaces old bone tissue. Over time, bones can become fragile and misshapen. The pelvis, skull, spine and legs are most commonly affected.

Pes Anserine Bursitis Treatment

Pes anserine bursitis is an inflammation of the bursa located between the shinbone (tibia) and three tendons of the hamstring muscle at the inside of the knee. It occurs when the bursa becomes irritated and produces too much fluid, which causes it to swell and put pressure on the adjacent parts of the knee.

Revision Joint Surgery

A revision joint replacement means that surgery must be done to replace a worn-out joint replacement. Also called revision arthroplasty, revision joint replacement is often more complicated than the initial joint replacement and the revision surgery may have less predictable results.

Rotator Cuff Surgery

Rotator cuff repair is surgery to repair a torn tendon in the shoulder. The procedure can be done with a large (open) incision or with shoulder arthroscopy, which uses smaller incisions.

Scaphoid Fracture Treatment

A scaphoid (navicular) fracture is a break in one of the small bones of the wrist. This type of fracture occurs most often after a fall onto an outstretched hand. Symptoms of a scaphoid fracture typically include pain and tenderness in the area just below the base of the thumb.

Shoulder Arthroplasty

Shoulder replacement removes damaged areas of bone and replaces them with parts made of metal and plastic (implants). This surgery is called shoulder arthroplasty (ARTH-row-plas-tee). The shoulder is a ball-and-socket joint.

Shoulder Capsular Release

Capsular release is a minimally invasive surgical procedure to treat frozen shoulder (adhesive capsulitis). This is a condition that develops when the capsule of connective tissues surrounding the shoulder thickens and tightens, causing pain and restricted movement.

Shoulder Impingement Syndrome Treatment

Shoulder impingement is a very common cause of shoulder pain, where a tendon (band of tissue) inside your shoulder rubs or catches on nearby tissue and bone as you lift your arm. It affects the rotator cuff tendon, which is the rubbery tissue that connects the muscles around your shoulder joint to the top of your arm.

Shoulder Ligament Repair

Shoulder reconstruction is a surgical procedure performed in patients with shoulder instability to improve stability, restore the function and prevent recurrent dislocations of the shoulder joint.

Tendon Repair

Tendon repair is a type of surgery to fix damaged or torn tendons. Movement can be extremely limited when tendons are torn or damaged. The affected area may feel weak and cause constant pain.

Tennis or Golfer's Elbow Treatment

The pain of golfer's elbow occurs primarily where the tendons of the forearm muscles attach to the bony bump on the inside of the elbow (medial epicondyle). By contrast, the pain of tennis elbow usually occurs at the bony bump on the outside of the elbow (lateral epicondyle).

Toe Implant

A number of different toe implants are available to treat osteoarthritis. Some implants are synthetic cartilage used to replace the damaged surface of the cartilage at the base of the big toe. These implants have the same look and feel as natural cartilage.

Toe Joint Replacement

A first MTP joint replacement treats arthritis of the big toe. The bone on either side of the joint is partially removed and replaced with metal, plastic, or a combination of both. First MTP joint replacement can lessen pain and retain motion.

Ankle Surgery

In an ankle replacement, the surgeon cuts off the ends of the broken bones and replaces them with a plastic-and-metal joint. In this operation, the surgeon cuts off the ends of the broken bones and puts a new joint made of plastic and metal on them.

Ankle Arthroscopy

Foot and ankle surgery is a sub-specialty of orthopedics and podiatry that focuses on the treatment, diagnosis, and prevention of illnesses that affect the foot and ankle. Foot and ankle surgery is also known as foot and ankle orthopaedics.

Ankle Replacement

Your doctor will cut into your ankle to get to the damaged joint. Next, your doctor will cut out the broken parts of your tibia and talus bones. Your surgeon will attach metal replacement joints to the left bone surfaces and put a piece of plastic in between them.

Ankle Fusion Surgery

Ankle fusion is a surgery that joins together two or more ankle bones. This makes the pain and swelling go away. Your doctor will cut into your ankle so he or she can work on the joint. Then, your doctor will press the bones together and use plates, nails, screws, or other hardware to hold them together.

Ankle Fracture Treatment

A broken bone needs to be kept from moving so it can heal. Most of the time, this needs a special shoe or a cast. An orthopedic surgeon may need to use pins, plates, or screws to keep your bones in the right place while they heal.

Achilles Tendon Rupture

If your Achilles tendon were to rupture, you would probably hear a pop, and then you would feel an acute, searing pain in the back of your ankle and lower leg. This agony would certainly interfere with your ability to walk in a normal manner. In order to heal the rupture, surgery is often required. However, nonsurgical therapy is effective for many patients in the same manner as surgical treatment.
Pathology
Pathology 2 Services

Bone Marrow Aspiration

Bone marrow examination refers to the pathologic analysis of samples of bone marrow obtained by bone marrow biopsy and bone marrow aspiration. Bone marrow examination is used in the diagnosis of a number of conditions, including leukemia, multiple myeloma, lymphoma, anemia, and pancytopenia.

Fine-Needle Aspiration Biopsy (FNAB, FNA or NAB)

Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB, FNA or NAB), or fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), is a diagnostic procedure used to investigate superficial (just under the skin) lumps or masses.
Pediatrics
Pediatrics 2 Services

Pediatric Surgery Consultation

Pediatric surgery is a subspecialty of surgery involving the surgery of fetuses, infants, children, adolescents, and young adults.

Pediatrics Consultation

A branch of medicine dealing with the development, care, and diseases of infants, children, and adolescents.
Plastic and Cosmetic Surgery
Plastic and Cosmetic Surgery 37 Services

Body Lift

A body lift, also known as body plastic surgery, improves the shape and tone by removing excess skin and the underlying fat. Excess sagging fat and skin are caused in part by poor tissue elasticity. A complete lower body lift treats the buttocks, abdomen, waist, hips and thighs in one procedure.

Breast Capsulectomy

A capsulectomy is the surgical removal of abnormally thick, hardened tissue that forms around breast implants—a condition known as capsular contracture. Your breast implant is removed and usually replaced during the procedure.

Breast Implant Removal

Breast implant removal is surgery to take out silicone or saline implants. Typically, breast implants last for about 10 to 15 years. Some people have implant removal surgery because of tissue hardening around the implant or other complications. Others may have surgery to replace old implants with new ones.

Breast Implant Revision

The goal of breast implant revision surgery is to replace old breast implants with new implants.

Breast Implants

A breast implant is a prosthesis used to change the size, shape, and contour of a person's breast.

Brow Lift

A brow lift, also called an eyebrow lift or forehead lift, is a cosmetic procedure that raises the eyebrows to decrease the appearance of wrinkles and frown lines and to lift sagging skin.

Buttock Implants

Silicone is the material used for butt implants. Unlike injections, solid silicone implants are surgically placed into the buttocks via an incision in between the butt cheeks. This procedure is sometimes combined with fat grafting for maximum results.

Calf Implants

Calf augmentation is a procedure performed to enhance the lower portion of the leg. In people with a shrunken lower leg, as a result of injury or disease, an implant can be inserted in the calf to help minimize the resultant deformity.

Calf Reduction

Calf reduction surgery is a cosmetic surgery that reduces or improves the shape and size of the calf muscle to provide a more balanced appearance. For women with very prominent, muscular calves, a calf reduction using muscle-relaxing injections is often the only solution.

Dermal Fillers

Dermal fillers, also known as injectable implants, soft tissue fillers, lip and facial fillers, or wrinkle fillers are medical device implants approved by the FDA for use in helping to create a smoother and/or fuller appearance in the face, including nasolabial folds (the lines extending from the sides of the nose to the edges of the mouth), cheeks, chin, lips, and back of the hands.

Double Eyelid Creation

Double eyelid surgery is a specific type of eyelid surgery in which creases in the upper eyelids are formed, creating double eyelids. You might choose this procedure, called blepharoplasty, if you want to correct a condition — such as droopy eyelids or eye bags — or if you want to change the appearance of your eyelids.

Ear Reconstruction

Ear reconstruction is a form of surgery that can rebuild an ear damaged by trauma or cancer surgery, or misshapen or missing due to a congenital (present at birth) disorder. Along with surgery to rebuild or repair the ear, hearing rehabilitation with an otologist may be necessary.

Ear Surgery

Otoplasty — also known as cosmetic ear surgery — is a procedure to change the shape, position or size of the ears. You might choose to have otoplasty if you're bothered by how far your ears stick out from your head. You might also consider otoplasty if your ear or ears are misshapen due to an injury or birth defect.

Eye Bag Removal

Eye bag surgery is a cosmetic procedure known as lower blepharoplasty. It lifts the lower eyelid and removes excess tissue from the under-eye area.

Eyebrow Adjustment

Eyebrow correction aims to create a perfectly shaped brow after encountering a problem with their appearance. Many people with sparse or nonexistent brows turn to permanent cosmetic procedures for the purpose of normalizing or enhancing their appearance.

Eyelid Surgery

Blepharoplasty (BLEF-uh-roe-plas-tee) is a type of surgery that repairs droopy eyelids and may involve removing excess skin, muscle and fat. As you age, your eyelids stretch, and the muscles supporting them weaken.

Hip Augmentation

Hip augmentation is a cosmetic procedure that can increase the size and width of your hips. It can enhance the look of your legs, increase your hip width and span, and provide your body a more pleasing shape overall. Many people undergo hip augmentation to gain an hourglass figure.

Jaw Shaping

As the name suggests, jaw shaping (or jawline contouring) involves reshaping the jawbone to improve its aesthetic appearance. Available in surgical and non-surgical forms, it is commonly used in feminisation procedures to make jawlines less "square" and more "rounded" in shape.

Labiaplasty

Labiaplasty is a surgical procedure to reduce or increase the size of your labia. The surgery is done to improve the appearance of your labia, to reduce physical discomfort or as part of gender-affirming surgery. Your labia are the folds of skin around your vagina opening. You have two folds of skin.

Mentoplasty

Chin surgery, also known as mentoplasty, is a surgical procedure to reshape the chin either by enhancement with an implant or reduction surgery on the bone.

Mommy Makeover

Mommy makeover is a catch-all phrase that refers to a specialized combination of body contouring procedures, performed together to improve the physical changes that linger long after pregnancy.

Muscle Ablation

The ablation of synergists for compensatory hypertrophy consists of the surgical removal of all or part of synergistic muscles, which can be either unilateral or bilateral, to generate chronic functional overload that causes hypertrophy.

Neck Lift

The surgeon carefully lifts the muscles of the neck and removes extra skin and fat, then closes the incisions and applies a pressure dressing around your head and underneath the chin. Afterward, your neck may feel tight, and you may notice some bruising, which fades in a couple of weeks.

Nipple Augmentation

Breast augmentation — also known as augmentation mammoplasty — is surgery to increase breast size. It involves placing breast implants under breast tissue or chest muscles. For some women, breast augmentation is a way to feel more confident. For others, it's part of rebuilding the breast for various conditions.

Nipple Reduction

Nipple reduction surgery reduces the projection (sticking out) of the nipple. The procedure can also decrease the circumference of the nipple as well. Nipple reductions are usually performed in conjunction with breast augmentation or breast lift, but it can be performed alone.

Otoplasty

Otoplasty — also known as cosmetic ear surgery — is a procedure to change the shape, position or size of the ears. You might choose to have otoplasty if you're bothered by how far your ears stick out from your head. You might also consider otoplasty if your ear or ears are misshapen due to an injury or birth defect.

Pectus Excavatum Treatment

Pectus excavatum is a condition in which a person's breastbone is sunken into his or her chest. Severe cases of pectus excavatum can eventually interfere with the function of the heart and lungs. Pectus excavatum is a condition in which the person's breastbone is sunken into the chest.

Penis Augmentation

Penis enlargement surgery is a procedure that aims to increase the length or girth of the penis. Surgery may involve the insertion of silicone implants, the transfer of fat cells, or the use of skin grafts to increase the size of the penis.

Plastic Surgery Consultation

Plastic surgery is defined as a surgical specialty dedicated to reconstruction of facial and body defects due to birth disorders, trauma, burns, and disease.

Rhinoplasty

Rhinoplasty is surgery that changes the shape of the nose. The motivation for rhinoplasty may be to change the appearance of the nose, improve breathing or both. The upper portion of the structure of the nose is bone, and the lower portion is cartilage.

Scar Removal

Scar revision is surgery to improve or reduce the appearance of scars. It also restores function, and corrects skin changes (disfigurement) caused by an injury, wound, poor healing, or previous surgery.

Sex Reassignment Surgery (Male to Female)

Male-to-female sex reassignment surgery involves reshaping the male genitals into a form with the appearance of, and as far as possible, the function of female genitalia.

Skin Grafting

Skin grafting is a surgical procedure that involves removing skin from one area of the body and moving it to a different area of the body. This surgery may be done if a part of your body has lost its protective covering of skin due to burns, injury, or illness. Skin grafts are performed in a hospital.

Thigh Lift

Thighplasty is a procedure to tighten and improve the overall appearance of thighs. Candidates for this procedure have loss of skin elasticity in the thigh or have thighs with a saggy, dimpled or flabby appearance which improves dramatically if the loose skin is lifted.

Tracheal Shave

In simple terms, a tracheal shave, medically called chondrolaryngoplasty, is a surgical procedure to reduce the size of your Adam's apple.

Areola Reduction

In areola reduction surgery, a small piece of the brown outer part of the areola is cut out in a circle. This makes the areola smaller. The skin around the areola is then pulled in like the string of a purse until it completely covers the areola. You can make the diameter smaller by sewing the inside of the areola with stitches that dissolve quickly.

Belt Lipectomy

A belt lipectomy is a specific kind of surgical procedure. It is performed to remove excess fat and skin from around the waist, sometimes known as the "belt line." This procedure is also known as a lipectomy of the abdominal region, a stomach tuck, and a panniculectomy.
Psychiatry
Psychiatry 2 Services

Psychiatry Consultation

A psychiatrist is a medical doctor who can diagnose and treat a wide range of mental illnesses. These can include depression, eating disorders, insomnia, and bipolar disorder. Psychiatrists also treat particular symptoms, such as anxiety or suicidal thoughts.

Psychotherapy

Psychotherapy is a general term for treating mental health problems by talking with a psychiatrist, psychologist or other mental health provider. During psychotherapy, you learn about your condition and your moods, feelings, thoughts and behaviors.
Psychology
Psychology 1 Services

Psychological Therapy

Psychotherapy (also psychological therapy or talking therapy) is the use of psychological methods, particularly when based on regular personal interaction, to help a person change behavior, increase happiness, and overcome problems.
Radiology
Radiology 29 Services

Bone Mineral Densitometry (BMD)

Bone density scanning, also called dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) or bone densitometry, is an enhanced form of x-ray technology that is used to measure bone loss. DXA is today's established standard for measuring bone mineral density (BMD).

Breast Imaging

The most commonly used breast imaging tests at this time are mammograms, ultrasound, and breast MRI. Other tests, such as CT scans, bone scans, or PET scans might sometimes be done to help find out if breast cancer has spread. Newer types of tests are now being developed for breast imaging.

Cerebral Angiogram

Cerebral angiography is a diagnostic test that uses an X-ray. It produces a cerebral angiogram, or an image that can help your doctor find blockages or other abnormalities in the blood vessels of your head and neck. Blockages or abnormalities can lead to a stroke or bleeding in the brain.

Chest X-Ray

Chest X-rays produce images of your heart, lungs, blood vessels, airways, and the bones of your chest and spine. Chest X-rays can also reveal fluid in or around your lungs or air surrounding a lung.

Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT)

Cone beam computed tomography is a medical imaging technique consisting of X-ray computed tomography where the X-rays are divergent, forming a cone. CBCT has become increasingly important in treatment planning and diagnosis in implant dentistry, ENT, orthopedics, and interventional radiology, among other things.

CT Angiogram (Computed Tomography Angiogram)

CT angiography is a type of medical test that combines a CT scan with an injection of a special dye to produce pictures of blood vessels and tissues in a part of your body. The dye is injected through an intravenous (IV) line started in your arm or hand.

CT Scan (Computed Tomography)

A CT scan or computed tomography scan is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to obtain detailed internal images of the body noninvasively for diagnostic purposes. The personnel that perform CT scans are called radiographers or radiology technologists.

Diagnostic Imaging Consultation

In a diagnostic radiology consultation, the radiologist will be presented with all the information regarding the patient's condition, particularly the symptoms being experienced. The radiologist will then recommend the most appropriate imaging scans in order to come up with an accurate diagnosis.

Diagnostic X-Rays

Diagnostic X-ray, or radiography, is a special method for taking pictures of areas inside the body. A machine focuses a small amount of radiation on the area of the body to be examined. The X-rays pass through the body, creating an image on film or a computer display.

Electroencephalography (EEG)

Electroencephalography (EEG) is a method to record an electrogram of the electrical activity on the scalp that has been shown to represent the macroscopic activity of the surface layer of the brain underneath. It is typically non-invasive, with the electrodes placed along the scalp.

Electromyogram (EMG)

Electromyography (EMG) measures muscle response or electrical activity in response to a nerve's stimulation of the muscle. The test is used to help detect neuromuscular abnormalities. During the test, one or more small needles (also called electrodes) are inserted through the skin into the muscle.

Fibroscan

Fibroscan is a non-invasive test that helps assess the health of your liver. Specifically, it uses ultrasound technology to determine the degree of fibrosis or scarring that may be present in your liver from various liver diseases or conditions.

Full Body CT Scan

The Total Body CT scan analyzes three major areas of the body: the lungs, the heart, and the abdomen/pelvis. The lung CT can detect early, potentially malignant nodules. In the heart, the scan can detect aortic aneurysms and calcium deposits within plaque in the coronary arteries.

Full Body MRA (Magnetic Resonance Angiography)

MRA stands for Magnetic Resonance Angiogram or MR Angiography. Your doctor may ask you to get one in order to look for and treat problems with your blood vessels. The test can check the blood vessels in many different parts of your body: Brain or neck.

Full Body PET-MRI Scan

A whole-body PET scan can detect differences in body functions, such as blood flow, use of oxygen, and uptake of sugar (glucose) molecules. This allows your doctor to see how certain organs are functioning.

Full Body Ultrasound Scan

An ultrasound scan, sometimes called a sonogram, is a procedure that uses high-frequency sound waves to create an image of part of the inside of the body. An ultrasound scan can be used to monitor an unborn baby, diagnose a condition, or guide a surgeon during certain procedures.

Head CT Scan

Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray equipment to help assess head injuries, severe headaches, dizziness, and other symptoms of aneurysm, bleeding, stroke, and brain tumors. It also helps your doctor to evaluate your face, sinuses, and skull or to plan radiation therapy for brain cancer.

Head Ultrasound

A head ultrasound uses sound waves to make images of the brain. An ultrasound machine sends sound waves into the head and images are recorded on a computer. The black-and-white images show the internal structure of the brain, including the ventricles (the fluid-filled cavities in the brain) and the blood vessels.

Mammography

Mammography (also called mastography) is the process of using low-energy X-rays (usually around 30 kVp) to examine the human breast for diagnosis and screening. The goal of mammography is the early detection of breast cancer, typically through detection of characteristic masses or microcalcifications.

Pelvic Ultrasound

A pelvic ultrasound is a noninvasive diagnostic exam that produces images that are used to assess organs and structures within the female pelvis. A pelvic ultrasound allows quick visualization of the female pelvic organs and structures including the uterus, cervix, vagina, fallopian tubes and ovaries.

Radionuclide Scans

Radionuclide scanning is used to diagnose, stage, and monitor disease. A small amount of a radioactive chemical (radionuclide) is injected into a vein or swallowed. Different radionuclides travel through the blood to different organs.

Renal Angiogram

A renal angiogram is an imaging test to look at the blood vessels in your kidneys. Your healthcare provider can use it to look at the ballooning of a blood vessel (aneurysm), narrowing of a blood vessel (stenosis), or blockages in a blood vessel. He or she can also see how well blood is flowing to your kidneys.

Stereotactic Breast Biopsy

Stereotactic breast biopsy uses mammography – a specific type of breast imaging that uses low-dose x-rays — to help locate a breast abnormality and remove a tissue sample for examination under a microscope.

Testicular Ultrasound

Ultrasound imaging of the scrotum uses sound waves to produce pictures of a male's testicles and surrounding tissues.

Thyroid Ultrasound

Thyroid ultrasound is a sound wave picture of the thyroid gland taken by a hand-held instrument and translated to a 2-dimensional picture on a monitor. It is used in diagnosis of tumors, cysts or goiters of the thyroid, and is a painless, no-risk procedure.

Ultrasound Scan

An ultrasound scan, sometimes called a sonogram, is a procedure that uses high-frequency sound waves to create an image of part of the inside of the body. An ultrasound scan can be used to monitor an unborn baby, diagnose a condition, or guide a surgeon during certain procedures.

Vascular Ultrasound

Vascular ultrasound uses sound waves to evaluate the body's circulatory system and help identify blockages in the arteries and veins and detect blood clots.

Virtual Colonoscopy

Virtual colonoscopy is a special X-ray examination of the colon using low dose computed tomography (CT). It is a less invasive procedure than a conventional colonoscopy. A radiologist reviews the images from the virtual colonoscopy to look for polyps on the inside of the colon that can sometimes turn into colon cancer.

Abdominal Ultrasound

An ultrasound of the abdomen is a way to look at the organs and tissues inside the abdomen without making any cuts. This is made up of the abdominal aorta and the gallbladder, liver, pancreas, bile ducts, and spleen. When ultrasound technology is used, the organs and structures inside the abdomen can be quickly seen from the outside of the body.
Medical Laboratory
Medical Laboratory 7 Services

Blood Test Package

This routine blood test measures the cells in the body through the blood. They test the blood for white blood cells, red blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and platelets. CBC tests can detect if you have anemia, nutritional deficiencies, an infection, cancer, and bone marrow problems.

Blood Tests

A blood test is a laboratory analysis performed on a blood sample that is usually extracted from a vein in the arm using a hypodermic needle, or via fingerprick

Genetic Testing

Genetic testing is a type of medical test that identifies changes in genes, chromosomes, or proteins. The results of a genetic test can confirm or rule out a suspected genetic condition or help determine a person's chance of developing or passing on a genetic disorder.

Laboratory Tests

Laboratory tests check a sample of your blood, urine, or body tissues. A technician or your doctor analyzes the test samples to see if your results fall within the normal range. The tests use a range because what is normal differs from person to person. Many factors affect test results.

Paternity Testing

Paternity refers to fatherhood. A DNA paternity test uses DNA, usually taken from a cheek swab, to determine whether a man is the child's biological father.

Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) Testing

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), or sexually transmitted infections (STIs), are infections that are passed from one person to another through sexual contact. The contact is usually vaginal, oral, or anal sex. But sometimes they can spread through other intimate physical contact.

Urine Tests

A urinalysis is a test of your urine. It's used to detect and manage a wide range of disorders, such as urinary tract infections, kidney disease and diabetes. A urinalysis involves checking the appearance, concentration and content of urine.
Intensive Care Medicine
Intensive Care Medicine 6 Services

Coronary care and cardiothoracic units (CCUs/CTUs)

A coronary care unit (CCU) or cardiac intensive care unit (CICU) is a hospital ward specialized in the care of patients with heart attacks, unstable angina, cardiac dysrhythmia and (in practice) various other cardiac conditions that require continuous monitoring and treatment.

Long term intensive care units (LTAC ICUs)

A long-term acute care (LTAC) facility is a specialty-care hospital designed for patients with serious medical problems that require intense, special treatment for an extended period of time—usually 20 to 30 days.

Medical intensive care units (MICUs)

A MICU is a location in the hospital where critically ill patients receive care. As a medical ICU, we care for patients with a variety of conditions, many of them life-threatening.

Neonatal intensive care units (NICUs)

NICU stands for newborn intensive care unit. This is a nursery in a hospital that provides around-the-clock care to sick or premature babies. It has health care providers who have special training and equipment to give your baby the best possible care.

Pediatric intensive care units (PICUs)

A pediatric intensive care unit (also paediatric), usually abbreviated to PICU (/ˈpɪkjuː/), is an area within a hospital specializing in the care of critically ill infants, children, teenagers, and young adults aged 0-21.

Surgical intensive care units (SICUs)

The Surgical Intensive Care Unit (SICU) is the multispecialty medical care center for critically ill patients who require surgery or are recovering from surgery.
Urology
Urology 37 Services

Bladder Neck Incision (BNI)

A bladder neck incision (B.N.I.) and a urethrotomy, are operations for men who have a decreased urinary stream and problems passing urine because of a bladder neck stenosis or a urethral stricture.

Bladder Stone Removal

Open cystostomy. An open cystostomy is often used to remove bladder stones in men with a very large prostate, or if the stone itself is very large. It's a similar procedure to percutaneous suprapubic cystolitholapaxy, except the surgeon makes a much larger cut in the abdomen and bladder.

Circumcision

Circumcision is the surgical removal of the skin covering the tip of the penis. The procedure is fairly common for newborn boys in certain parts of the world, including the United States. Circumcision after the newborn period is possible, but it's a more complex procedure.

Cystectomy

Cystectomy (sis-TEK-tuh-me) is a surgery to remove the urinary bladder. In men, removing the entire bladder (radical cystectomy) typically includes removal of the prostate and seminal vesicles. In women, radical cystectomy also involves removal of the uterus, ovaries and part of the vagina.

Cystoscopy

A cystoscopy is a procedure to look inside the bladder using a thin camera called a cystoscope. A cystoscope is inserted into the urethra (the tube that carries pee out of the body) and passed into the bladder to allow a doctor or nurse to see inside.

Epididymal Cyst Removal

Vestibular rehabilitation is an exercise-based program, designed by a specialty-trained vestibular physical therapist, to improve balance and reduce problems related to dizziness.

Erectile Dysfunction Diagnosis

Erectile dysfunction (impotence) is the inability to get and keep an erection firm enough for sex. Having erection trouble from time to time isn't necessarily a cause for concern.

Erectile Dysfunction Treatment

Erectile dysfunction (ED) is the inability to get or keep an erection firm enough to have sexual intercourse. It's sometimes referred to as impotence, although this term is now used less often. Occasional ED isn't uncommon. Many people experience it during times of stress.

Genital Wart Treatment

Genital warts are usually a sexually transmitted disease (STD). They're caused by HPV (human papillomavirus). This virus also can cause some types of cancer. But the types of HPV that cause genital warts do not usually cause cancer.

Hydrocele Testis Treatment

A hydrocele is an accumulation of serous fluid in a body cavity. A hydrocele testis is the accumulation of fluids around a testicle. It is often caused by peritoneum wrapped around the testicle, called the tunica vaginalis. Provided there is no hernia present, it goes away without treatment in the first year.

Hypospadias Treatment

Hypospadias is a birth defect in boys in which the opening of the urethra is not located at the tip of the penis. In boys with hypospadias, the urethra forms abnormally during weeks 8–14 of pregnancy. The abnormal opening can form anywhere from just below the end of the penis to the scrotum.

Inguinal Orchiectomy

Inguinal orchiectomy (also named orchidectomy) is a specific method of orchiectomy whereby one or both testicles and the full spermatic cord are surgically removed through an incision in the lower lateral abdomen (the "inguinal region").

IVU (Intravenous Urography)

An intravenous urogram (IVU) is a test that looks at the whole of your urinary system. It's sometimes called an intravenous pyelogram (IVP). It looks at the: kidneys.

Kidney Cyst Treatment

A kidney cyst is a round or oval fluid-filled pouch with a well-defined outline. Kidney cysts typically grow on the surface of a kidney, although some may develop inside your kidney. Kidney cysts are round pouches of fluid that form on or in the kidneys.Jul 28, 2020

Kidney Stones Treatment

Kidney stones form in your kidneys. As stones move into your ureters — the thin tubes that allow urine to pass from your kidneys to your bladder — signs and symptoms can result. Signs and symptoms of kidney stones can include severe pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, chills and blood in your urine.

Kidney Surgery

A nephrectomy is surgery to remove a kidney. Your surgeon may perform a partial nephrectomy to remove only a portion of your kidney. Or you may have a radical nephrectomy, where your surgeon removes your entire kidney. If you have kidney disease or cancer, a nephrectomy can be a life-saving procedure.

Laser Treatment for BPH (Enlarged Prostate)

Holmium laser prostate surgery is a minimally invasive treatment for an enlarged prostate. Also called holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HOLEP), the procedure uses a laser to remove tissue that is blocking urine flow through the prostate.

Pediatric Urology

Pediatric urologists are surgeons who can diagnose, treat, and manage children’s urinary and genital problems.If your child has an illness or disease of the genitals or urinary tract (kidneys, ureters, bladder), a pediatric urologist has the experience and qualifications to treat your child.

Penectomy

Listen to pronunciation. (pee-NEK-toh-mee) Surgery to remove part or all of the penis (an external male reproductive organ).

Penile Prosthesis

A penile implant, or penile prosthesis, is a treatment for erectile dysfunction (ED). The surgery involves placing inflatable or flexible rods into the penis. Inflatable rods require a device filled with saline solution and a pump hidden in the scrotum.

Penis Frenuloplasty

A frenuloplasty is a specialized technique which removes the tight fold of skin on the underside of the penis, allowing increased penile skin range of motion and sexual enjoyment. What are the benefits of having a frenuloplasty? The benefit is that foreskin is not removed.

Peyronie's Disease Treatment

Peyronie's (pay-roe-NEEZ) disease is a noncancerous condition resulting from fibrous scar tissue that develops on the penis and causes curved, painful erections. Penises vary in shape and size, and having a curved erection isn't necessarily a cause for concern.

Phimosis Surgery

Phimosis surgery, also called circumcision or postectomy, aims to remove excess skin from the penis. It is performed to prevent penile cancer, urinary tract infections and sexually transmitted infections.

Prostate Biopsy

A prostate biopsy is a procedure to remove samples of suspicious tissue from the prostate. The prostate is a small, walnut-shaped gland in males that produces fluid that nourishes and transports sperm. During a prostate biopsy a needle is used to collect a number of tissue samples from your prostate gland.

Prostatectomy

Prostatectomy is surgery to remove part or all of the prostate gland. The prostate gland is situated in the male pelvis, below the urinary bladder.

Reverse Vasectomy

Vasectomy reversal is surgery to undo a vasectomy. During the procedure, a surgeon reconnects each tube (vas deferens) that carries sperm from a testicle into the semen. After a successful vasectomy reversal, sperm are again present in the semen, and you may be able to get your partner pregnant.

Spermatic Cord Hydrocole Treatment

Spermatic cord hydrocele is a collection of fluid along the spermatic cord that lies superior to the testicle and does not communicate with the scrotal sac. It is a rare congenital anomaly resulting from abnormal closure of the processus vaginalis.

Testicular Biopsy

Testicular biopsy is a procedure in which a small portion of testicle is removed for examination. The biopsy is performed by creating a small incision in the skin of the scrotum. A small piece of the testicle tissue is removed through the incision by snipping the sample off with small scissors.

Testicular Tumor Removal

Cancer that forms in tissues of one or both testicles. Testicular cancer is most common in young or middle-aged men. Most testicular cancers begin in germ cells (cells that make sperm) and are called testicular germ cell tumors.

Transurethral Resection of Bladder Tumors (TURBT)

TURBT is the procedure done to diagnose and to treat early stage bladder cancer at the same time. The initials stand for transurethral resection of a bladder tumor. This procedure is the first-line diagnostic test and treatment for bladder cancer.

Ureteral Stone Removal

Ureteral stones are kidney stones that have become stuck in one or both ureters (the tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder). If the stone is large enough, it can block the flow of urine from the kidney to the bladder. This blockage can cause severe pain.

Ureteroplasty

Urethroplasty is surgery performed on your urethra, a part of your urinary system. The urethra is a tube that carries urine from your urinary bladder to the outside of your body. In men, the urethra also carries semen outside of their bodies.

Ureteroscopy

Ureteroscopy is a procedure to address kidney stones, and involves the passage of a small telescope, called a ureteroscope, through the urethra and bladder and up the ureter to the point where the stone is located.

Urethral Surgery

Ureteral surgeries are procedures that fix problems with the flow of urine between the ureter (the tube that carries urine from the kidney to the bladder) and the kidney.

Urology Consultation

Urology is a part of health care that deals with diseases of the male and female urinary tract (kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra). It also deals with the male organs that are able to make babies (penis, testes, scrotum, prostate, etc.).

Urostomy

A urostomy is an opening in the belly (abdominal wall) that's made during surgery. It re-directs urine away from a bladder that's diseased, has been injured, or isn't working as it should. The bladder is either bypassed or removed. (Surgery to remove the bladder is called a cystectomy.)

Varicocelectomy

Varicocelectomy is a surgery that removes swollen veins inside the scrotum, called varicoceles. There aren't any medications that treat or get rid of varicoceles, so your doctor may recommend surgery to remove them.

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