Cardioversion is a medical procedure that restores a normal heart rhythm in people with certain types of abnormal heartbeats (arrhythmias). Cardioversion is usually done by sending electric shocks to your heart through electrodes placed on your chest. It's also possible to do cardioversion with medications.
Stress Electrocardiography (ECG)
The exercise stress test -- also known as an exercise electrocardiogram, treadmill test, graded exercise test, or stress EKG -- is used most often. It lets your doctor know how your heart responds to being pushed. You'll walk on a treadmill or pedal a stationary bike. It'll get more difficult as you go.
Preoperative evaluation means an assessment of cardiac risk. The goal of perioperative cardiac risk assessment is to identify those patients with unstable cardiac disease for whom further study and treatment warrants the risk of surgical delay.
Roemheld Syndrome Treatment
Roemheld syndrome (RS), or gastrocardiac syndrome, or gastric cardiac syndrome or Roemheld-Techlenburg-Ceconi-Syndrome or gastric-cardia, was a medical syndrome first coined by Ludwig von Roemheld (1871–1938) describing a cluster of cardiovascular symptoms stimulated by gastrointestinal changes.
Electrophysiology Study (EPS)
An electrophysiology (EP) study — also called invasive cardiac electrophysiology — is a series of tests that examine the heart's electrical activity. The heart's electrical system produces signals (impulses) that control the timing of the heartbeats.
Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection (SCAD) Treatment
Spontaneous coronary artery dissection — sometimes referred to as SCAD — is an emergency condition that occurs when a tear forms in a blood vessel in the heart. SCAD can slow or block blood flow to the heart, causing a heart attack, heart rhythm problems (arrythmias) or sudden death.
Surgery for Transposition of the Great Arteries (TGA)
Arterial switch is a surgical procedure and the main treatment to correct transposition of the great arteries (TGA). Almost all children with TGA undergo the arterial switch repair (also called the Jatene repair). Soon after birth, babies with TGA become very sick because of a severe lack of oxygen.
Pericarditis is swelling and irritation of the thin, saclike tissue surrounding the heart (pericardium). Pericarditis often causes sharp chest pain. The chest pain occurs when the irritated layers of the pericardium rub against each other. Pericarditis is usually mild and goes away without treatment.
Coronary Steal Treatment
Coronary artery disease (CAD) causes impaired blood flow in the arteries that supply blood to the heart. Also called coronary heart disease (CHD), CAD is the most common form of heart disease and affects approximately 16.5 millionTrusted Source Americans over the age of 20
Endocarditis is treated with a course of antibiotics given via a drip. You'll need to be admitted to hospital for this. Some people also need surgery to repair or replace a damaged heart valve or drain away any abscesses that develop. Endocarditis is a serious illness, especially if complications develop.
Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to produce detailed pictures of the structures within and around the heart. Doctors use cardiac MRI to detect or monitor cardiac disease.
Keshan Disease Treatment
Keshan disease is an endemic cardiomyopathy with high mortality rates. It is most prevalent in low income, rural regions of China and in areas with selenium-deficient soil. The condition can cause acute or congestive heart failure, a thinning heart wall, and cardiac arrhythmia, among other health issues.
Intra-Aortic Balloon Pump Insertion
IABP therapy involves inserting the balloon-tipped catheter into a blood vessel and advancing it to the heart. Usually, this happens during a heart-related surgery. In an emergency, a medical team may insert it at your bedside.
Glenn shunt procedures involve the anastomosis of the superior vena cava to the right pulmonary artery to increase pulmonary blood flow in patients with cyanotic heart disease.
A pacemaker insertion is the implantation of a small electronic device that is usually placed in the chest (just below the collarbone) to help regulate slow electrical problems with the heart. A pacemaker may be recommended toensure that the heartbeat does not slow to a dangerously low rate.
Cryoablation for Atrial Fibrillation
Doctors perform cryoablation to restore normal heart rhythm by disabling heart cells that create an irregular heartbeat. During this minimally invasive procedure, a thin flexible tube called a balloon catheter is used to locate and freeze the heart tissue that triggers an irregular heartbeat.
Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) Surgery
A coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) is a surgical procedure used to treat coronary heart disease. It diverts blood around narrowed or clogged parts of the major arteries to improve blood flow and oxygen supply to the heart.
Right Heart Catheterization
In a right-heart cath, your doctor guides a special catheter (a small, hollow tube) called a pulmonary artery (PA) catheter to the right side of your heart. He or she then passes the tube into your pulmonary artery. This is the main artery that carries blood to your lungs.
Dressler's Syndrome Treatment
The main treatment for Dressler syndrome is medication to reduce inflammation. Your doctor may recommend nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as: Aspirin. Ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others)
Pericardiocentesis is a procedure done to remove fluid that has built up in the sac around the heart (pericardium). It's done using a needle and small catheter to drain excess fluid.
Cardiac Amyloidosis Treatment
Some of the common types of chemotherapy used to treat amyloidosis are cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan, Neosar) and melphalan (Alkeran) combined with the steroids dexamethasone (multiple brand names) and prednisone (multiple brand names).
Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG)
An electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) records the electrical signal from the heart to check for different heart conditions. Electrodes are placed on the chest to record the heart's electrical signals, which cause the heart to beat. The signals are shown as waves on an attached computer monitor or printer.
Cardiac rehab, or cardiac rehabilitation, is a medically supervised program that includes exercise, support, counseling and education. This comprehensive program helps you recover from a heart attack or other heart problem. It offers many benefits that can improve your health and quality of life.
Dobutamine Stress Echocardiogram
A dobutamine stress echocardiogram (DSE) may be used if you are unable to exercise. Dobutamine is put in a vein and causes the heart to beat faster. It mimics the effects of exercise on the heart. During an echo, a transducer (like a microphone) sends out ultrasonic sound waves at a frequency too high to be heard.
Shone's Syndrome Treatment
Shone's complex is a congenital (present at birth) heart disease. It affects how blood flows both into and out of the left side of the heart. The multiple sites of blockage in the blood flow through the left side of the heart differentiates Shone's syndrome from other isolated heart defects.
Pulmonary Artery Banding (PAB)
Pulmonary artery banding (PAB) is a surgical technique used for the palliation of certain congenital cardiac defects. The most common indication is for the limitation of pulmonary blood flow in the clinical scenario of pulmonary over-circulation caused by large left-to-right shunts.
24 Hour Blood Pressure Monitoring
A technique to measure blood pressure continuously is 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Even when you are asleep, your blood pressure is monitored. Your doctor can get a better idea of your blood pressure numbers from the information that is collected over time.
Diastolic Heart Failure Treatment
The pharmacologic therapies of choice for diastolic heart failure are angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, diuretics, and beta blockers.
Pancarditis, also called perimyoendocarditis, is the inflammation of the entire heart: the pericardium, the myocardium and the endocardium. Reflux carditis refers to a possible outcome of esophageal reflux (also known as GERD), and involves inflammation of the esophagus/stomach mucosa.
Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Connection (TAPVC) Surgery
Total anomalous pulmonary venous return (TAPVR) is a condition in which the blood vessels from the lungs take an abnormal path back to the heart. TAPVR surgery is open heart surgery done to fix this problem. The heart has 4 chambers: a right and left atrium and a right and left ventricle.
A computerized tomography (CT) coronary angiogram is an imaging test that looks at the arteries that supply blood to your heart. It might be done to diagnose the cause of chest pain or other symptoms. A CT coronary angiogram uses a powerful X-ray machine to produce images of your heart and its blood vessels.
Subaortic Membrane Excision
Subaortic membrane resection is an open-heart surgery performed under general anesthesia with the use of a heart-lung bypass machine. The surgeon will open the chest and then the aorta near the aortic valve. The subaortic membrane is removed, which will restore the flow of blood from the left ventricle to the body.
Eisenmenger's Syndrome Treatment
Sildenafil (Revatio, Viagra) and tadalafil (Cialis, Adcirca) are sometimes used to treat high blood pressure in your pulmonary arteries caused by Eisenmenger syndrome. These drugs work by opening the blood vessels in the lungs to allow blood to flow through more easily.
Aortic Stenosis Treatment
To treat aortic valve stenosis, people often need to have their aortic valves replaced. During aortic valve replacement, your doctor takes out the damaged valve and puts in a new one made of cow, pig, or human heart tissue.
Tricuspid Atresia Treatment
Tricuspid atresia (pronounced try-CUSP-id uh-TREE-zhuh) is a birth defect of the heart where the valve that controls blood flow from the right upper chamber of the heart to the right lower chamber of the heart doesn't form at all.
High Output Heart Failure Treatment
High-output heart failure is a heart condition that occurs when the cardiac output is higher than normal due to increased peripheral demand. There is a circulatory overload which may lead to pulmonary edema secondary to an elevated diastolic pressure in the left ventricle.
Left Heart Catheterization
Left heart catheterization is the passage of a thin flexible tube (catheter) into the left side of the heart. It is done to diagnose or treat certain heart problems.
During a Fontan surgery, congenital heart surgeons reroute the blood flow from the lower body to the lungs by connecting the inferior vena cava to the pulmonary artery. To accomplish this, surgeons will most often create a connecting channel, or tube, outside of the heart.
Surgery for Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome
Soon after a baby with hypoplastic left heart syndrome is born, multiple surgeries done in a particular order are needed to increase blood flow to the body and bypass the poorly functioning left side of the heart. The right ventricle becomes the main pumping chamber to the body.
Aortopulmonary Window Repair
Surgery is done with the help of cardiopulmonary bypass. An incision can be made in the front of the aorta, in the main pulmonary artery, or in the aortopulmonary window itself. Usually, related lesions are fixed during the same surgery.
Cardiac Resynchronisation Therapy (CRT) Device Implantation
Cardiac resynchronization therapy requires a minor surgical procedure to implant a device in the chest. You'll likely be awake during the procedure, but will receive medication to help you relax. The area where the pacemaker is implanted is numbed. The procedure typically takes a few hours.
Aortic Valve Repair
Aortic valve replacement is a procedure in which an artificial heart valve is used to replace a patient's failing aortic valve. Most of the time, open-heart surgery and opening the chest bone are used to fix aortic valves.
Angina Pectoris Treatment
The two main types of surgery used to fix an aneurysm are open surgery and endovascular repair. When you have open surgery, the doctor makes a big cut in your stomach or chest. The damaged part of the aorta is then replaced with a graft by the doctor. In endovascular repair, the cut is much smaller than in open surgery.
Paediatric cardiologists are doctors who diagnose and treat children with cardiac (heart) conditions. They work with patients antenatally (before birth), through childhood and into adulthood.
Ultrafast CT Scan (Computed Tomography)
An ultrafast computed tomography (CT) scan is also called electron beam CT scan. It's an imaging test that uses X-rays and a computer to look at your heart. The scan takes pictures very quickly.
Tricuspid Valve (TV) Repair
Tricuspid valve repair is an open-heart procedure. Your surgeon may reshape the valve, or repair or separate fused valve leaflets. The operation can be done through a small incision on the side of the chest.
Hypertension is another name for high blood pressure. It can lead to severe health complications and increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and sometimes death. Blood pressure is the force that a person's blood exerts against the walls of their blood vessels.
Atrial Septal Defect (ASD) Closure
ASD closure is a method to close a hole in your heart called an atrial septal defect (ASD). ASD is a hole in the wall (septum) between the two upper chambers of your heart that isn't supposed to be there. Usually, the hole closes up a few weeks after the baby is born.
An echocardiogram, or "echo", is a scan used to look at the heart and nearby blood vessels. It's a type of ultrasound scan, which means a small probe is used to send out high-frequency sound waves that create echoes when they bounce off different parts of the body.
Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) Closure
Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a persistent opening between the two major blood vessels leading from the heart. The opening (ductus arteriosus) is a normal part of a baby's circulatory system in the womb that usually closes shortly after birth. If it remains open, it's called a patent ductus arteriosus.
A focused assessment of the cardiac system includes a review for common or concerning symptoms: Chest pain—assess location, when it occurs, intensity, type, duration, with or without exertion, radiation, associated symptoms (shortness of breath, sweating, nausea, palpitations, anxiety), and alleviating factors.
Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD) Implantation
An implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) is a small battery-powered device placed in the chest to detect and stop irregular heartbeats (arrhythmias). An ICD continuously monitors the heartbeat and delivers electric shocks, when needed, to restore a regular heart rhythm.
Balloon Pulmonary Valvuloplasty
With balloon valvuloplasty, the pulmonary valve is fixed. A long, thin tube called a catheter is used in the process. At the end of this tube is a balloon that you can blow up. The doctor threads this catheter all the way to the pulmonary valve through a blood vessel in the groin.
Blalock–Taussig Shunt (BT Shunt)
The Blalock–Thomas–Taussig shunt is a surgical procedure used to increase blood flow to the lungs in some forms of congenital heart disease. These conditions, in which a child is born with an abnormal heart include pulmonary atresia and Tetralogy of Fallot and are common causes of blue baby syndrome.
The Bentall procedure is a surgery to replace part of the aorta and the aortic valve of the heart because of a bulge (aneurysm) in the aorta. The aorta is the large blood vessel (artery) that carries blood from the heart through the chest and belly to the rest of the body.
Myocardial Viability Testing
Purpose. Positron emission tomography (PET) viability imaging is used to assess how much heart muscle has been damaged by a heart attack or heart disease. This test is used to determine whether a patient may need angiography, cardiac bypass surgery, heart transplant or other procedures.
Tilt Table Test
In a tilt table test, you lie on a table that adjusts your body position from horizontal to vertical to simulate standing up. The test can tell your doctor if faulty brain signals are causing low blood pressure. A tilt table test is used to evaluate the cause of unexplained fainting.
Temporary cardiac pacing is an intervention that helps the heartbeat get back to a normal pace if it has been temporarily out of rhythm. In temporary cardiac pacing, wires are inserted through the chest (during heart surgery), or a large vein in the groin or neck, and are directly connected to the heart.
Surgery for Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)
Surgery for tetralogy of Fallot involves open-heart surgery to correct the defects (intracardiac repair) or a temporary procedure that uses a shunt. Most babies and older children have intracardiac repair.
Atherosclerosis is when fats, cholesterol, and other things build up in and on the walls of the arteries. Atherosclerosis can make arteries narrow, which can stop blood from flowing and cause a blood clot.
Myocardial Bridge Treatment
A myocardial bridge is a usually harmless condition in which one or more of the coronary arteries goes through the heart muscle instead of lying on its surface. Most bridges don't seem to cause symptoms. However, some people with myocardial bridges can experience angina, or chest pain.
Acute Decompensated Heart Failure Treatment
In acute decompensated heart failure, the development of heart failure may be either rapid or gradually, and patients will exhibit the normal indications and symptoms of heart failure.
Surgery for Coarctation of the Aorta
During surgery to correct a coarctation, the narrow portion is removed and the aorta is reconstructed or patched to allow blood to flow normally through the aorta. Even after surgery, children with a coarctation of the aorta often have high blood pressure that is treated with medicine.
Surgery for Ebstein's Anomaly
Several types of procedures can be used to surgically treat Ebstein anomaly and associated defects. Tricuspid valve repair. Surgeons reduce the size of the valve opening and allow the valve leaflets to come together to work properly. A band might be placed around the valve to keep it in place.
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